Cases reported "Cerebral Hemorrhage"

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1/15. Spontaneous resolution of acute obstructive hydrocephalus in the neonate.

    Spontaneous resolution of acute hydrocephalus without aspiration of cerebral fluid is rare. In a neonate born at full term this has only been reported once before. We report on one further case that was caused by intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). The probable mechanism is resolution of the acute haemorrhage in the region of the aqueduct, resulting in resolution of the hydrocephalus itself. The importance of considering conservative management of acute hydrocephalus in the clinically stable neonate is emphasised.
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keywords = aqueduct
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2/15. Neurovascular headache and a midbrain vascular malformation: evidence for a role of the brainstem in chronic migraine.

    Migraine is a common, disabling form of primary headache that has been linked by functional imaging studies to activation in the rostral brainstem. In specialty clinics migraine is most commonly seen in association with frequent less feature full headache that has been called transformed migraine or more recently termed chronic migraine. A patient is described with frequent migraine, 3 days per week, and less feature full headaches on other days. The patient has a cavernoma in the midbrain that has bled. She was previously headache free and now has contralateral daily headache. The patient supports the functional imaging observations from positron emission tomography (PET) that the rostral brainstem is pivotal in migraine pathophysiology, particularly the contralateral midbrain periaqueductal grey matter. Moreover, the patient's lesion provides biologically plausible support that a single entity causes her clinical presentation: chronic migraine, not two-disorders, migraine and tension-type headache.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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3/15. Transaqueductal aspiration of pontine hemorrhage with the aid of a neuroendoscope. Technical note.

    The authors advocate the use of a 1.7-mm fiberscope to evaluate a hypertensive bilateral tegmental pontine hemorrhage that has ruptured, in part, into the fourth ventricle. In applying this new technique, a fiberscope, which contains a guide tube in the working channel, is inserted into the aqueduct. After the endoscope has been removed, a silicone tube is slid along the guide tube. The hematoma is evacuated through the silicone tube and a potassium titanyl phosphate laser is used to achieve hemostasis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = aqueduct
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4/15. color Doppler flow imaging of CSF flow in an infant with intraventricular hemorrhage.

    Evaluation of CSF flow was performed by means of the color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) technique. The motion of CSF was examined in an infant with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). With the aid of CDFI, CSF flow in the aqueduct, 3rd ventricle and foramen of Monro could be demonstrated. CSF flow in both upward and downward directions was clearly visualized, primarily reflecting cardiac pulsation and respiration. When he was subjected with intermittent positive pressure ventilation, during inspiration there was upward flow in the aqueduct, while during expiration there was downward flow. Our experience indicates that CDFI is a useful technique for examining the CSF circulation in infants with IVH.
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ranking = 2
keywords = aqueduct
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5/15. Bilateral traumatic third nerve palsy.

    Bilateral palsy of the third cranial nerve in a head-injured patient is described. Delayed computed tomography scanning demonstrated a midline necrotic lesion within the mesencephalon ventral to the aqueduct. The lesion, possibly the sequela of a focal contusion, involved both third nerve nuclear complexes and caused paralysis of their voluntary as well as autonomic functions. Gaze mechanisms and long tracts appeared to be less heavily damaged. The literature dealing with third nerve palsy, particularly bilateral cases, from traumatic and other origins is briefly reviewed.
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keywords = aqueduct
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6/15. hydranencephaly in vertebral-basilar territory.

    A case is presented of almost complete destruction of the cerebellum secondary to a hemorrhagic event in utero. Lesions consistent with hydranencephaly were found in the territories of the vertebral-basilar circulation. Ependymitis and aqueduct occlusion secondary to the intraventricular bleeding resulted in intrauterine hydrocephalus formation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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7/15. Reversibility of Parinaud syndrome in thalamic hemorrhage.

    Parinaud syndrome, associated with a left thalamic hemorrhage, disappeared completely in a 57-year-old woman after ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The syndrome may be attributed to increased intracranial pressure owing to mass effect on the pretectal region and tectum, or to tightness in the incisura causing hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct compression. The lesions responsible for the syndrome may not be irreversible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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8/15. Fetal respiratory distress causing CNS and inner ear hemorrhage.

    Fifty-two consecutive temporal bones of infants who died neonatally, or in utero of natural causes, were studied. Complete autopsies were performed. Twenty-eight infants had a variety of pulmonary disorders which resulted in severe respiratory distress prior to their death. Of these, the majority had bleeding intracranially and into the inner ear. There were five major pathways of central nervous system and subarachnoid hemorrhage involvement of the inner ear: 1) the modiolus, 2) cochlear aqueduct, 3) retrograde via the cochlear vein, 4) episodes of spontaneous bleeding into various compartments of the inner ear, and 4) hemorrhage via the otic capsule. The remaining 24 infants died of other natural causes. Two had CNS bleeding with no extension to the inner ear. We propose that there is a syndrome which consists of 1) neonatal respiratory distress, 2) intracranial hemorrhage, and 3) bleeding into the inner ear--an extension of a subarachnoid or subependymal matrix bleeding diathesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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9/15. Congenital hydrocephalus secondary to intra-uterine germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage.

    An infant with hydrocephalus which had been diagnosed at birth died at one month of age. Subsequent neuropathological studies demonstrated old germinal matrix haemorrhage and complete occlusion of the aqueduct of Sylvius by fibroglial tissue, both of which appeared to be older than four weeks, indicating that they had occurred in utero. These observations are consistent with the occurrence of intra-uterine intraventricular haemorrhage secondary to haemorrhage of the subependymal germinal matrix, leading to occlusion of the aqueduct of Sylvius and hydrocephalus prior to birth.
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ranking = 2
keywords = aqueduct
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10/15. hematoma of the quadrigeminal plate. Case report.

    The authors report a case in which a hematoma of the quadrigeminal plate resulted from the rupture of a "cryptic" arteriovascular malformation (AVM) fed by the artery of the quadrigeminal plate. The AVM was symptomatic before rupturing and this clinical feature, associated with the lack of angiographic demonstration, led to the erroneous preoperative diagnosis of a tumor. In retrospect, the only finding that might have suggested the correct diagnosis was the beaded appearance on the ventriculogram of the aqueduct due to blood clots into this fluid space.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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