Cases reported "Cerebral Hemorrhage"

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1/113. cleidocranial dysplasia with neonatal death due to central nervous system injury in utero: case report and literature review.

    cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), an uncommon disorder involving membranous bones, is rarely lethal in early life. The calvaria is defective and wormian bones are present. Abnormalities of the clavicles vary in severity from a minor unilateral defect to bilateral absence. This report concerns pre- and postmortem anatomical and radiological findings in a 15-day-old female neonate with CCD. Her postnatal course was characterized by seizures and recognition of hydrocephalus during the first day of life. The calvaria was hypoplastic with numerous wormian bones. A pseudofracture of the right clavicle was present. hydrocephalus was present in the brachycephalic brain which had a severely thinned cerebral cortex. hemosiderin in the ventricular lining and marked subependymal gliosis were interpreted as evidence of old intraventricular hemorrhage that had occurred in utero. A CCD-related condition, Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS), is noted for early lethality and for developmental and secondary abnormalities of the central nervous system. The present case only partially matches the phenotype of YVS and might represent a part of a spectrum of phenotypic variants ranging from viable CCD to lethal YVS.
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2/113. April 1999--44 year old man with a bleeding intracerebral tumor.

    A 44 year-old man presented with a three month history of increasing headache and evolving left sided hemiparesis that culminated in an haemorrhage into an intracerebral tumour which was partially resected. Histologic, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic and molecular studies are supportive of a diagnosis of primary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. While primary rhabdomyosarcoma of the central nervous system is rare, and 72% of previously reported cases are in the paediatric population, there appears to be subset of these tumours occurring supratentorially in the adult.
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3/113. Coexistence of intracranial arteriovenous malformation with Turcot's syndrome: a case report.

    Turcot's syndrome is a combination of multiple adenomatous gastrointestinal polyps and neuroepithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). A 16-year-old man presented with Turcot's syndrome consisting of nonfamilial colorectal polyposis and multiple fibrillary astrocytomas accompanied by ruptured intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) manifesting as generalized epileptic activity. Multiple CNS tumors are extremely unusual in Turcot's syndrome. This is the first description of Turcot's syndrome associated with an intracranial AVM. This case may correspond to a new phenotypic variant of colonic polyposis syndrome.
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4/113. coccidioidomycosis meningitis with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and tissue arthroconidia.

    To our knowledge we report the first case of meningitis from coccidioides immitis associated with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and with mycelial forms of the organism in brain tissue. The patient was a 43-year-old man with late-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose premortem and postmortem cultures confirmed C immitis as the only central nervous system pathogenic organism. death was attributable to multiple hemorrhagic venous infarctions with cerebral edema and herniation. Although phlebitis has been noted parenthetically to occur in C immitis meningitis in the past, it has been overshadowed by the arteritic complications of the disease. This patient's severe C immitis ventriculitis with adjacent venulitis appeared to be the cause of the widespread venous thrombosis. AIDS-related coagulation defects may have contributed to his thrombotic tendency.
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5/113. Spontaneous epidural hematoma following a shunt in an infant with congenital factor x deficiency. Case report and literature review.

    The authors describe a case of an infant with congenital factor x deficiency. The patient presented with a central nervous system hemorrhage followed by hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and, during the postoperative period, developed a spontaneous epidural hematoma, which was evacuated. The clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this case are discussed based on a literature review.
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6/113. A phase Ib/II trial of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 for renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases: a case of fatal central nervous system thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are cytokines with nonoverlapping pleiotropic effects. In a prior Phase Ib study, this combination of agents exhibited antitumor effects in the lungs of four of eight patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases. We conducted this Phase Ib/II trial to determine the response rate of renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases treated with continuous infusion IL-2 plus GM-CSF. methods: patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases were treated with 1.5, 2.25, or 4.5 x 10(6) IU/m(2)/day 96-hour continuous infusion IL-2 on Days 1-4, 8-11, and 15-18, and 1.25, 2.25, or 2.5 microg/kg/day GM-CSF on Days 8-19. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were treated per protocol, 14 of whom could be evaluated for disease progression. None of these 14 patients had >50% shrinkage of either total tumor burden or pulmonary metastasis. One patient developed Grade 5 neurotoxicity. autopsy revealed acute multifocal cerebral venous thrombosis as well as acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF may be associated with marked morbidity and, as in one case in this study, mortality. No significant antitumor activity was appreciated. Thus, the combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF, when administered at this dose and according to this schedule, does not appear to be active in renal cell carcinoma and is associated with significant toxicities. Further studies using this combination of agents should only be undertaken with extreme caution and particular attention to neurotoxicity.
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7/113. Postoperative stroke in a child with cerebral palsy heterozygous for factor v Leiden.

    A 5-year-old with spastic quadraparetic cerebral palsy suffered multiple strokes after extensive orthopedic surgery. Coagulation testing was undertaken to determine whether a familial thrombophilia was present. The patient was found to be heterozygous for factor v Leiden. factor v Leiden may be a risk factor for central nervous system events in special-needs children, particularly when common medical conditions create additional procoagulant risks.
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8/113. Thrombocytopenic purpura associated with brucellosis: report of 2 cases and literature review.

    Mild hematologic abnormalities are common in the course of human brucellosis; however, they generally resolve promptly with treatment of the disease. Occasionally, thrombocytopenia is severe and can be associated with bleeding into the skin (purpura) and from mucosal sites. We describe 2 patients infected with brucella melitensis who presented with thrombocytopenic purpura, and we review 41 additional cases from the literature. patients ranged in age from 2 to 77 years, and both sexes were affected equally. In the majority of cases, examination of the bone marrow revealed abundant megakaryocytes. Possible mechanisms involved in thrombocytopenia include hypersplenism, reactive hemophagocytosis, and immune destruction of platelets. Recognition of this complication is essential, since hemorrhage into the central nervous system is associated with a high mortality rate.
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9/113. Fatal cerebral hemorrhage associated with cyclosporin-A/FK506-related encephalopathy after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    We report a case of cerebral hemorrhage associated with cyclosporin A (CsA)/FK506-related encephalopathy that developed in a 16-year-old woman after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Hematopoietic engraftment occurred on day 15, and the patient developed systemic convulsions after CsA was replaced by FK506 for the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Based on magnetic resonance imaging, laboratory findings and cerebrospinal fluid studies, she was diagnosed as having CsA/FK506-related encephalopathy with cerebral hemorrhagic infarction. Although she recovered completely after discontinuation of FK506, she developed convulsions again 15 days after re-administration of FK506. A computed tomography scan showed cerebral hemorrhage. She died of respiratory failure. Vascular damage induced by immunosuppressive drugs and enhanced by acute GVHD seemed to be the cause of the cerebral hemorrhage. Since hypertension, which was present during both of the central nervous system events, seemed to have contributed to the development of the cerebral hemorrhage, it is proposed that CsA and FK506 should be reduced or discontinued when patients who have risk factors of hypertension become hypertensive even if they have no symptoms of neurotoxicity.
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10/113. August 2000: Two cases with necrosis and hemorrhage in the putamen and white matter.

    The August COM: Acute methanol poisoning is an uncommon, but well-recognized, cause of central nervous system injury. We present two autopsy cases showing the classic neuropathologic injuries in acute methanol poisoning: putamen and white matter necrosis and hemorrhage. In Case 1, putamen hemorrhages were striking; white matter pathology predominated in Case 2. The precise mechanism of methanol toxicity is unclear. Direct toxicity of metabolites, particularly formic acid, as well as ischemic injury and acidosis likely play a role. methanol is readily available in many commercial products, and may be ingested accidentally or intentionally.
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