Cases reported "Cerebral Hemorrhage"

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1/24. Complications of lumbar puncture with injection of hydrosoluble material.

    We report two cases of severe disorders after spinal puncture with injection of hydrosoluble material. The first case concerned a 36-year-old woman with intrathecal injection of 125 ml of hydrocortisone acetate. An intracranial occipital hematoma developed. The second case concerned a 26-year-old man with intrathecal injection of contrast media and hydrocortisone. A chemical meningitis occurred. In both cases the natural course was favorable. Both complications are well known but rare. A review of the literature is made with description of the mechanisms. Preventive therapeutic measures are reported.
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2/24. Extradural haematoma complicating lumbar puncture following a craniotomy. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: This case report illustrates the development of an intracranial extradural haematoma (EDH) as an uncommon complication of a lumbar puncture. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 10-year-old girl operated for intra-third ventricular cysticercosis developed postlumbar puncture headache after a drainage lumbar puncture (LP) on the 7th postoperative day. CT scan revealed a right frontal EDH away from the operative site. INTERVENTION: The child was managed conservatively in view of her preserved sensorium. RESULTS: The child had an uneventful recovery. Follow-up CT scans showed resolution of the haematoma. CONCLUSIONS: LP, though considered to be a safe procedure, may rarely be associated with a potentially lethal intracranial haematoma, which can be managed successfully if diagnosed at an early stage.
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3/24. Unilateral posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the neonatal period or later in infancy.

    Five infants who developed unilateral hydrocephalus associated with antenatal or perinatal intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in the neonatal period or later in infancy are reported. Unilateral hydrocephalus occurred following discharge home in four of our five cases, two of whom had been treated during the neonatal period with either serial lumbar punctures or punctures from a Rickham reservoir. An obstruction at the level of the foramen of Monro following a large subependymal matrix bleed appeared to be the underlying aetiology. These data suggest that infants who suffer a predominantly unilateral IVH, with or without parenchymal involvement, can subsequently develop unilateral hydrocephalus. Cranial ultrasound examinations should be repeated at regular intervals during the first year of life, as unilateral hydrocephalus can still develop after a period of apparent stabilization.
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4/24. Bilateral frontal haemorrhages associated with continuous spinal analgesia.

    We report a case of intracerebral haemorrhages associated with continuous spinal analgesia. Continuous spinal analgesia is frequently employed for postoperative analgesia in high-risk patients in our institution. The analgesia is administered via a 20 gauge catheter passed through an 18 gauge Tuohy needle (Portex). A 71-year-old man with severe respiratory impairment had an intrathecal catheter placed for postoperative analgesia. He had a difficult postoperative course, including wound dehiscence, and died from respiratory failure some five weeks postoperatively. On day nine postoperatively he had two tonic-clonic seizures and was subsequently found to have developed bilateral frontal intracerebral haemorrhages. There was no previous history of seizures. Although several confounding variables exist, the most likely explanation for the intracerebral event appears to be an association with the dural puncture and intrathecal catheter Possible mechanisms and risk factors are discussed.
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5/24. Possible acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis manifesting as intracerebral hemorrhage on computed tomography--case report.

    A 15-year-old girl presented with meningeal irritation and bilateral cerebral signs after contracting influenza. A lumbar puncture revealed bloody cerebrospinal fluid and polymorphonuclear predominant pleocytosis with an elevated protein level and normal glucose level. Computed tomography showed a hematoma in the right basal ganglia and lateral ventricles. Symmetrical low density areas were also noted in the bilateral white matter. The preliminary diagnosis was hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease of unknown cause. However, her neurological condition deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed diffuse high intensity signals in the bilateral white matter and small spotty lesions, indicating hemorrhages in various stages. The final diagnosis was acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL). However, high-dose steroid administration and plasmapheresis failed to improve her condition. hypothermia could not control her intracranial pressure and she died 12 days after admission. The neuroimaging findings indicated the histological characteristics of AHL, but the hematoma formation is rare. AHL is a fulminant form of brain demyelination and can be fatal, so early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are important for successful recovery. Therefore, early investigation by MR imaging is necessary.
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6/24. Postpartum post-dural puncture headache: is your differential diagnosis complete?

    We describe a patient with an intracerebral haemorrhage following an accidental dural puncture during an attempted epidural for pain relief in labour. Anaesthetists need to include intracerebral haemorrhage in the differential diagnosis of post-dural puncture headache in the puerperium.
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7/24. Spinal subdural empyema: report of two cases.

    Spinal subdural empyema (SSE) is a rare variety of intraspinal infection. SSE should be suspected in patients presenting with fever, back pain, and signs of cord or nerve root compression. Two patients with SSE are presented. The first patient complained of fever and back pain. She had no neurological deficit but was found to have SSE. The second patient, who presented with intracerebral hemorrhage in the fifth month of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion, was found to have SSE at lumbar puncture. The clinical manifestations and management are discussed.
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8/24. vitamin k deficiency, intracranial hemorrhage, and a subgaleal hematoma: a fatal combination.

    An exclusively breast-fed infant, who did not receive vitamin K prophylaxis at birth, presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure. Her clinical course was compounded by a lumbar puncture, which revealed blood in the cerebrospinal fluid, and a large subgaleal hematoma, which developed at the puncture site of an attempted scalp vein catheterization, resulting in coning, hypovolemic shock, and death. A major coagulopathy was present, probably caused by vitamin k deficiency. The necessity for vitamin K prophylaxis in all newborns and the timing of lumbar puncture in the critically ill child are discussed.
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9/24. Probable intrafamilial transmission of coxsackievirus b3 with vertical transmission, severe early-onset neonatal hepatitis, and prolonged viral rna shedding.

    Here we report a familial cluster of 3 cases of coxsackievirus B3 infection: a recent history of illness in a woman's 3-year-old son with a coxsackievirus B3-positive stool culture indicated that he probably infected his mother at home during her last week of pregnancy. Consequently, she delivered an infected neonate who developed severe hepatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and bilateral intracranial hemorrhage. The neonate remained well for the first 2 days of life. On the third day, he developed fever (39 degrees C) and poor peripheral circulation. On the fourth day, he developed petechiae and bruises over his chest wall and extremities, and prolonged bleeding was observed over venipuncture sites. Investigations revealed severe thrombocytopenia (platelets: 41 x 10(9)/L) and a markedly deranged coagulation profile (prothrombin time: 19 seconds [reference: < 10 seconds]; activated partial thromboplastin time: > 120 seconds [reference: 24.2-37.0 seconds], serum D-dimers: 6722 ng/mL [reference: < 500 ng/mL]), suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Clinical examination revealed yellow sclera, hepatomegaly (5 cm), and splenomegaly (2 cm), consistent with hepatitis. Serial chest radiographs showed bilateral pleural effusions, and an ultrasound of the abdomen demonstrated ascites. An echocardiogram showed normal cardiac structure and good contractility of both ventricles. However, a cranial ultrasound revealed bilateral grade 2 intraventricular hemorrhages. serum c-reactive protein increased to 33.9 mg/L. liver-function tests were also markedly deranged at this time, with maximum values for serum alanine transferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and ammonia concentration of 1354 IU/L, 258 micromol/L, 189 IU/L, and 147 micromol/L, respectively. serum glucose levels were normal. Over the next 3 days, his fever subsided, and his liver function and clotting profile normalized by day 13 after onset of illness. A stool sample from the older brother, collected 14 days after his onset of illness at home, was positive for coxsackievirus B3 by both virus culture and enterovirus reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. He had neutralizing coxsackievirus B3 antibody titers of 1:2560 and 1:1280 on days 14 and 28 after his onset of illness, respectively. No virus was cultured from the mother's stool sample, collected 5 days after her onset of illness, but the enterovirus polymerase chain reaction was positive and maternal sera neutralized the coxsackievirus B3 isolated from the neonate. The maternal sera also showed a more than fourfold rise in antibody titer from 1:80 to 1:640 on days 5 and 16 after her onset of illness, respectively. Neonatal antibody titers also showed a more than fourfold rise from < 1:80 to 1:2560 on days 1 and 21 after his onset of illness, respectively. This demonstrates that both the mother and the neonate had had recent coxsackievirus B3 infections. Serially collected neonatal throat swab and stool samples were culture negative for enterovirus by 4 and 8 days after his onset of illness, respectively. However, enterovirus rna remained detectable by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in these samples for considerably longer, only becoming undetectable by 16, 23, and 41 days after his onset of illness. We show that even mild household infections may have potentially serious consequences for pregnant women and their infants.
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10/24. Intracerebral hemorrhage after lumbar myelography with iohexol: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Intracranial hemorrhage is an uncommon complication of dural puncture. In most instances, hematomas are subdural; they may be unilateral or bilateral. Rarely are intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhages related to dural puncture. This report describes a delayed occurrence of bilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhages in a 38-year-old woman 7 days after lumbar myelography with iohexol. A review of the literature is presented.
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