Cases reported "Cerebral Hemorrhage"

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11/178. electroconvulsive therapy and subdural hemorrhage.

    electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was used to treat severe depressive illness in two patients, one of whom had undergone recent neurosurgery for subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and another with a concurrent SDH in the absence of raised intracranial pressure. Although the second patient died 1 month after the completion of ECT, in neither case did ECT extend the SDH or lead to other intracranial complications. It would seem that ECT can be performed safely in the presence of SDH without mass effect or after surgical drainage of SDH, although clinicians should proceed cautiously in close collaboration with neurosurgical colleagues, review neuroimaging scans at regular intervals during and after the course of ECT, and use the dose-titration method of treatment with unilateral electrode placement away from the site of the lesion or surgery to minimize adverse effects.
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12/178. A phase Ib/II trial of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 for renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases: a case of fatal central nervous system thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are cytokines with nonoverlapping pleiotropic effects. In a prior Phase Ib study, this combination of agents exhibited antitumor effects in the lungs of four of eight patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases. We conducted this Phase Ib/II trial to determine the response rate of renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases treated with continuous infusion IL-2 plus GM-CSF. methods: patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases were treated with 1.5, 2.25, or 4.5 x 10(6) IU/m(2)/day 96-hour continuous infusion IL-2 on Days 1-4, 8-11, and 15-18, and 1.25, 2.25, or 2.5 microg/kg/day GM-CSF on Days 8-19. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were treated per protocol, 14 of whom could be evaluated for disease progression. None of these 14 patients had >50% shrinkage of either total tumor burden or pulmonary metastasis. One patient developed Grade 5 neurotoxicity. autopsy revealed acute multifocal cerebral venous thrombosis as well as acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF may be associated with marked morbidity and, as in one case in this study, mortality. No significant antitumor activity was appreciated. Thus, the combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF, when administered at this dose and according to this schedule, does not appear to be active in renal cell carcinoma and is associated with significant toxicities. Further studies using this combination of agents should only be undertaken with extreme caution and particular attention to neurotoxicity.
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13/178. Acute subdural hematoma and intracerebral hemorrhage. Rare complications of rhinocerebral mucormycosis.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a short-term and often rapidly lethal fungal disease. It is generally seen in uncontrolled cases of diabetes with ketoacidosis. This case exhibits many of the features of a typical fulminating rhinocerebral mucormycosis. However, the fatal complications of acute subdural hematoma and massive intracerebral hemorrhage due to rupture of aneurysm, as demonstrated by angiography, are unique clinical manifestations of patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis.
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14/178. Posterior-fossa haemorrhage after supratentorial surgery--report of three cases and review of the literature.

    We present clinical details of three patients with posterior fossa haemorrhage after supratentorial surgery and discuss possible pathomechanisms of this rare complication. All patients were males of advanced age. Two patients presented with a history of hypertension. In all patients the occurrence of haemorrhage was associated with loss/removal of large amounts of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) either intra-operatively (one patient undergoing aneurysm surgery) or postoperatively (all three patients: drainage of subdural hygromas or chronic subdural haematomas in two, external ventricular drainage in one patient). Treatment consisted in haematoma evacuation and/or external ventricular drainage. Two patients died, one patient recovered completely. Although haematomas distant from a craniotomy site are a well known entity, a review of the literature identified only 25 published cases of posterior fossa haemorrhage after supratentorial procedures in the CT era. Most often disturbances of coagulation, positioning of the patient and episodes of hypertension have been associated with this complication. Only one author described the occurrence of a haemorrhage after drainage of a supratentorial hygroma. We suggest that the loss of large amounts of CSF intra-operatively and post-operatively may lead to parenchymal shifts or a critical increase of transmural venous pressure with subsequent vascular disruption and haemorrhage.
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15/178. facial pain as a presenting feature of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    A literature review from 1966 using medline with keywords 'cerebral haemorrhage' and 'facial pain' failed to reveal any cases in which facial pain was the initial feature of intracranial haemorrhage. The following case describes ipsilateral facial pain which is previously undescribed as a presentation of intracranial bleeding. A 53 year old female who was previously well, with no significant history of headache, developed right facial pain from the orbit to the maxilla. Ten to 15 min later she developed nausea and vomiting with unsteadiness and confusion. She had difficulty with left-hand fine finger movements, with normal sensation and reflexes but an extensor plantar response on the left. facial pain persisted for 3 days. Initial imaging revealed a 4 x 3 cm right temporal lobe haemorrhage with mass effect and oedema extending into the subarachnoid space. Angiogram revealed a right temporal lobe arteriovenous malformation. The basis of the pain remains speculative but includes sensation from the torn vessel wall being referred to the face and subarachnoid blood irritation of the meninges in the middle cranial fossa. Another possibility is irritation of somatosensory cortex II, but why this should result in only ipsilateral pain is unclear. facial pain should be an alerting symptom to the neurologist when it appears with no apparent cause.
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16/178. Terson syndrome caused by ventricular hemorrhage associated with moyamoya disease--case report.

    A 24-year-old female presented with Terson syndrome secondary to bilateral ventricular hemorrhage as a complication of moyamoya disease. ophthalmoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging clearly demonstrated vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye globe. Various visual symptoms are associated with moyamoya disease, almost all of which result from ischemic lesions in the visual cortex and optic pathways. In this case, the visual disturbance was caused by Terson syndrome secondary to ventricular hemorrhage. Close ophthalmological and radiological evaluation is mandatory even in patients with moyamoya disease and hemorrhagic manifestation located in the intracerebral, subarachnoid, or intraventricular space.
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17/178. New-onset tic disorder following acute hemorrhage of an arteriovenous malformation.

    The etiology of tic disorder includes idiopathic, postencephalitic, head injury, carbon monoxide poisoning, stroke, and developmental syndromes. We report a case of new-onset complex motor and vocal tics that began after hemorrhage of an arteriovenous malformation located in the left frontal lobe. We have found no reported cases of new-onset tics related to arteriovenous malformations or hemorrhage into the frontal lobes. The patient is a 16-year-old right-hand-dominant boy who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Evaluation, including magnetic resonance imaging, revealed a left frontal arteriovenous malformation, confirmed by angiogram. Following resection, there was an intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the left frontal lobe with intraventricular hemorrhage, noted most prominently in the left lateral and IIIrd ventricles, and a subdural hematoma caudal to the craniotomy. The postoperative course was complicated by hemiparesis and global aphasia. During recovery, the patient developed what was thought to be a complex partial seizure evidenced by head turning to the right with vocalization and left upper extremity clonic jerks. These were brief and occurred multiple times per day. A trial of carbamazepine was given with no improvement. It was noted that the spells occurred more frequently under stress, as when the patient was frustrated with communication. The diagnosis was changed to complex motor tics and the therapy changed to clonidine. The tics subsequently improved by 80%, although they were still present. We believe the development of complex motor tics due to frontal hemorrhage represents a unique etiology and could complicate postsurgical recovery in similar cases.
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18/178. Two types of auditory neglect.

    Auditory neglect, defined as inattention to stimuli within the left hemispace, is mostly reported in association with left ear extinction in dichotic listening. However, it remains disputed as to how far dichotic extinction reflects a primary attentional deficit and is thus appropriate for the diagnosis of auditory neglect. We report here on four patients who presented left ear extinction in dichotic listening following right unilateral hemispheric lesions. Auditory spatial attention was assessed with two additional tasks: (i) diotic test by means of interaural time differences (ITDs), simulating bilateral simultaneous spatial presentation of the dichotic tasks without the inconvenience of interaural intensity or content difference; and (ii) sound localization. A hemispatial asymmetry on the ITD diotic test or a spatial bias on sound localization were found to be part of auditory neglect. Two patients (J.C.N. and M.B.) presented a marked hemispatial asymmetry favouring the ipsilesional hemispace in the ITD diotic test, but did not show any spatial bias in sound localization. Two other patients (A.J. and E.S.) had the reverse profile: no hemispatial asymmetry in the ITD diotic test, but a severe spatial bias directed to the ipsilesional side in sound localization. J.C.N. and M.B. had mainly subcortical lesions affecting the basal ganglia. A.J. and E.S. had cortical lesions in the prefrontal, superior temporal and inferior parietal areas. Thus, there are two behaviourally and anatomically distinct types of auditory neglect characterized by: (i) deficit in allocation of auditory spatial attention following lesions centred on basal ganglia; or (ii) distortion of auditory spatial representation following frontotemporoparietal lesions.
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19/178. Pineal apoplexy due to massive hemorrhage associated with cavernous angioma: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Pineal apoplexy is a rare apoplectic event in the pineal region with various possible causes. We report a case of massive hemorrhage in the pineal region associated with a cavernous angioma, and discuss the pathogenesis of pineal apoplexy. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-year-old girl presented with nausea and vomiting persisting for 1 week. neuroimaging revealed enlarged ventricles and a 4 cm round mass in the pineal region consistent with hematoma. Two weeks after cerebrospinal fluid drainage, the mass was totally removed via the occipital transtentorial approach. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. magnetic resonance imaging after the operation confirmed two paraventricular lesions with surrounding hemosiderin rings, characteristic of cavernous angioma. Histologic examination showed large hematomas and numerous vascular spaces lined by a single layer of endothelium. The diagnosis was pineal apoplexy associated with cavernous angioma, based on the histologic and radiological findings. CONCLUSIONS: Pineal cavernous angiomas are extremely rare, with only fourteen cases reported previously. We recommend total removal of the causative lesion in cases of pineal apoplexy to prevent repeated bleeding or life-threatening massive hemorrhage.
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20/178. Intracerebral haematomas with agenesis of the internal carotid artery and tetralogy of fallot.

    We report a rare case with tetralogy of fallot (TOF) and agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) who presented serious intracerebral haematomas. In the literature, this is the first documented case having these complications simultaneously. Extreme hypoxic insults followed by recovery were detected by O2 saturation monitor before two bleeds. Chronic brain hypoxia could make the vasculature weak, which was shown in the histological examination. A 2-year-old girl was transferred to us with a general convulsion due to intracerebral haematoma. She had been showing general cyanosis from birth due to TOF. Repeated intracerebral haemorrhages ended her life. Histological study showed dilated vascular channels in the subarachnoid space and necrotizing vasculature obstructed by fibrinous thrombi adjacent to the haematoma. fibrosis of the vessel wall with infiltration of macrophages suggested subacute or chronic lesions rather than acute necrosis due to the multiple haemorrhages. The intracerebral haematomas and agenesis of the ICA were observed as unilateral hemispheric vascular complications of TOF. Chronic brain hypoxia could play an important role in weakening the vessel wall and erythrocytosis caused obstructing thrombi. We speculate these factors generated the intracerebral haematomas.
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