Cases reported "Cerebral Hemorrhage"

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1/224. Fatal haemorrhagic infarct in an infant with homocystinuria.

    Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with homocystinuria. However, it is unusual for thrombosis and infarction to be the presenting feature leading to investigation for homocystinuria and cerebrovascular lesions in the first year of life. We describe a previously healthy 6-month-old infant who presented with a large middle-cerebral-artery territory infarction and died of massive brain swelling. homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency was diagnosed by metabolite analysis and confirmed by enzymatic activity measurement in a postmortem liver biopsy. homocystinuria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of venous or arterial thrombosis, regardless of age, even in the absence of other common features of the disease. We recommend systematic metabolic screening for hyperhomocysteinemia in any child presenting with vascular lesions or premature thromboembolism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/224. Intraventricular hemorrhage as a false localizing sign of a thoracolumbar arteriovenous malformation: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Spinal arteriovenous malformation (SAVM) is a relatively rare disease characterized by a high incidence of intramedullary and subarachnoid haemorrhage. When the hemorrhage is profuse and the SAVM is in the cervical region the symptoms (disturbance of consciousness, papilledema, cranial nerve palsies, and convulsions) may be so severe and rapid in their onset that they may be mistaken for intracranial hemorrhage. We report here on a patient with a SAVM at T10-12, which bled intracranially, mainly intraventricularly, and resulted first in respiratory arrest and unconsciousness. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient had been well until he was 28 years old when, during intercourse, he suffered a terrible headache and suddenly lost consciousness, with a transient respiratory arrest. He was also noted to have right hemiparesis. A computed tomography scan demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage. After a 24-hour period of artificial ventilation the patient regained consciousness and the right arm paresis completely recovered, but a gradual worsening of the motor function of the left leg developed. Digital subtraction angiography did not demonstrate any intracranial source of bleeding, whereas spinal angiography revealed a SAVM located at the medullary cone, which was totally removed by surgery. CONCLUSION: The case reported here raises several important issues. First, the advisability of spinal magnetic resonance imaging in the investigation of intraventricular (and subarachnoid) hemorrhage in patients with no demonstrable intracranial source. Secondly, the benefits of early diagnosis and reestablishment of the spinal cord circulation before the onset of thrombosis and the progressive phase of myelopathy. Finally, the necessity of complete obliteration and treatment of SAVMs even in patients with fixed neurologic deficits, because rebleeding of lower thoracic or lumbar SAVMs can lead to impairment at a higher level with severe or lethal consequences.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = thrombosis
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3/224. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae: endovascular treatment with transvenous coil embolisation.

    Tentorial arteriovenous dural fistulae are uncommon. They are aggressive lesions: of all intracranial dural fistulae they are the most likely to present with haemorrhage. Treatment options include surgical excision or interruption of leptomeningeal draining veins and arterial embolisation in isolation or in combination with surgery. There has been one case report of treatment by percutaneous transvenous coil embolisation. We describe successful transvenous coil embolisation of two tentorial dural fistulae presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage.
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ranking = 0.0059906740911227
keywords = vein
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4/224. Dural arteriovenous malformation in the anterior cranial fossa.

    Two cases of dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM) at the base of the anterior cranial fossa are described. In both cases an intracerebral hematoma following the rupture of the AVM was the first indication of the disease. In one case, the malformation was supplied both by the anterior ethmoidal artery and frontopolar artery draining into the superior sagittal sinus. In the second case, the right anterior ethmoidal artery with draining veins into the superior sagittal sinus and sphenoparietal sinus was the feeding vessel. Surgical evacuation of the hematoma and excision of the malformation was performed on both patients. The typical clinical signs and radiological findings are described. A review of the pertinent literature is given.
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ranking = 0.0059906740911227
keywords = vein
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5/224. sagittal sinus thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia: a report of two patients.

    Reported are two patients presenting with both thrombocytopenia and sagittal sinus thrombosis. The first patient is a 42-month-old male with no identified thrombophilic risk factors who developed acute neurologic symptoms after an acute infection. The second patient is a 22-month-old female with no history of preceding infection but had a positive lupus anticoagulant test. She also developed deep venous thrombosis and was treated with intravenous heparin. Both patients are currently doing well without neurologic deficits. To the authors' knowledge the second patient is the youngest reported patient with cerebral vein thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia and lupus anticoagulant. These observations call attention to the need for a thorough investigation of thrombophilic risk factors in pediatric patients with thrombotic complications.
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ranking = 3.6210634284171
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein, deep
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6/224. rupture of several parasagittal bridging veins without subdural bleeding.

    This case reports on a fatal craniocerebral trauma involving numerous ruptured cerebral bridging veins that did not bleed subdurally, despite approximately 15 hours of survival. A 15-year-old girl was severely injured as the passenger of a car that crashed sideways into a tree. She-suffered a cerebral trauma of the "diffuse injury" type and was unconscious after the accident. Her computed tomographic scan at admission showed massive brain edema, axial herniation, and marked hypodensity of the bilateral carotid flow area. Despite intensive care measures, the clinical course was characterized by central decompensation with therapy-resistant cardiocirculatory insufficiency. The autopsy revealed ruptures of numerous parasagittal bridging veins. The injured vessels were not thrombosed, and yet there was absolutely no subdural bleeding. This unusual combination of findings is assumed to be caused by an isolated collapse of cerebral circulation occurring shortly after the accident and primarily attributed to a rapid increase of intracranial pressure.
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ranking = 0.035944044546736
keywords = vein
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7/224. Cerebellar haemorrhage after evacuation of an acute supratentorial subdural haematoma.

    Recent reports have highlighted the unusual complication of distant cerebellar haemorrhage after supratentorial craniotomy, with only 25 previous cases reported in the literature. Nearly all reported cases occurred after craniotomy for temporal lobectomy or for deep seated intracerebral pathology requiring brain retraction and removal of CSF at surgery. Only one previous case of a cerebellar haemorrhage after evacuation of an extracerebral fluid collection has been reported. We describe the case of a cerebellar haemorrhage complicating the evacuation of an acute/subacute supratentorial subdural haematoma in a 83-year-old woman. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms of haemorrhage discussed.
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ranking = 0.0019771550579574
keywords = deep
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8/224. hepatopulmonary syndrome and venous emboli causing intracerebral hemorrhages after liver transplantation: a case report.

    Increasing experience has fostered the acceptance of liver transplantation as a treatment for patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome. morbidity and mortality is most commonly attributed to progressive arterial hypoxemia postoperatively. A cerebral hemorrhage has been reported in one patient with hepatopulmonary syndrome after transplantation. However, a postmortem examination of the brain was not performed and the pathogenesis or type of cerebral hemorrhage was undefined. We report on a patient with severe hepatopulmonary syndrome who developed multiple intracranial hemorrhages after transplantation. The intracerebral hemorrhages were most consistent with an embolic etiology on postmortem examination. We postulate that venous embolization, caused by the manipulation of a Swan Ganz catheter in a thrombosed central vein, resulted in pulmonary emboli that passed through dilated intrapulmonary vessels into the cerebral microcirculation. Special attention to central venous catheters and avoidance of manipulation may be warranted in subjects with severe hepatopulmonary syndrome after liver transplantation.
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ranking = 0.0059906740911227
keywords = vein
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9/224. coccidioidomycosis meningitis with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and tissue arthroconidia.

    To our knowledge we report the first case of meningitis from coccidioides immitis associated with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and with mycelial forms of the organism in brain tissue. The patient was a 43-year-old man with late-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose premortem and postmortem cultures confirmed C immitis as the only central nervous system pathogenic organism. death was attributable to multiple hemorrhagic venous infarctions with cerebral edema and herniation. Although phlebitis has been noted parenthetically to occur in C immitis meningitis in the past, it has been overshadowed by the arteritic complications of the disease. This patient's severe C immitis ventriculitis with adjacent venulitis appeared to be the cause of the widespread venous thrombosis. AIDS-related coagulation defects may have contributed to his thrombotic tendency.
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ranking = 3.6785735956078
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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10/224. Periventricular haemorrhagic infarct in a preterm neonate.

    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an infant born, at 28 weeks gestational age who suffered a sudden episode of bradycardia and desaturation on the 3rd day of life. Imaging demonstrated bilateral germinal layer haemorrhage and intraventricular haemorrhage, with parenchymal involvement in a fan-shaped pattern in the periventricular white matter on the left. These appearances are consistent with a combination of intravascular thrombi and perivascular haemorrhage along the course of the medullary veins. We believe that this is the first report of the MRI appearance of an acute periventricular haemorrhagic infarct associated with a germinal layer haemorrhage/intraventricular haemorrhage in a preterm neonate.
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ranking = 0.0059906740911227
keywords = vein
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