Cases reported "Cerebral Infarction"

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1/199. Focal neurological deficits in children with beta-thalassemia major.

    The hematologic disorder beta-thalassemia major is relatively common in Southern italy. stroke is a well described, though infrequently reported, complication of this disorder. We now report our experience regarding 300 children with beta-thalassemia major examined at the University of Catania, italy, over a 20-year period. We encountered 9 patients (3%; 3 males, 6 females) with beta-thalassemia major who had hemorrhagic stroke. Two groups of patients can be identified: group 1 (2 patients 22%) with early-onset post-transfusion hemorrhage and group 2 (7 patients 77%) with delayed post-transfusion hemorrhage. In the first group, the hemorrhage occurred within 48 hours following blood transfusion. In the second group, hemorrhage occurred 7-15 days from last transfusion. In 5 patients out of 7 of this second group the first transfusion and ictal event both occurred after age five, suggesting prolonged chronic anemia might play a role in the hemorrhage.
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2/199. Non-typhoid salmonella meningitis complicated by a infarction of basal ganglia.

    A previously healthy 16-month-old Korean girl with symptoms of fever, vomiting, and generalized tonic seizure was diagnosed to have Group D non-typhoid salmonella meningitis. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) and amikin (22.5 mg/kg/day) initially and ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day) was added later because of clinical deterioration and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Brain CT performed on the second day showed a well-demarcated low density lesion in the right lentiform nucleus and both caudate nuclei, without evidence of increased intracranial pressure. MRI performed on the 11th day confirmed CT scan findings as well as right subdural fluid collection, brain atrophy, and ventriculomegaly. She underwent subdural drainage and later ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation. Despite receiving intensive treatment, she still has severe neurologic sequelae. Our case shows that infarctions of basal ganglia and thalami are not specific for tuberculous meningitis and that meningitis complicated by infarction is indicative of grave prognosis.
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keywords = nucleus
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3/199. Second harmonic imaging In acute middle cerebral artery infarction. Preliminary results.

    BACKGROUND: Second harmonic imaging (SHI) is a new ultrasound technique that is able to detect microbubbles in the tissue vascular space. The aim of this pilot study was to prove that this technique may detect focal abnormalities of cerebral echo-contrast enhancement in acute hemispheric stroke. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Two male patients (aged 72 and 64 years) were included who presented with acute onset of severe hemiparesis and no established demarcation of the ischemic area in CT scans. After bolus application of galactose-based microbubbles, axial SHI examinations in a diencephalic plane of sections were performed using the transtemporal approach. Ultrasound investigations were recorded and evaluated offline. In both individuals demarcated focal abnormalities of cerebral contrast enhancement were detectable: in patient 1 the region of the lentiform nucleus and the adjacent parts of the temporoparietal lobe was affected, and in patient 2 a large region including the lentiform nucleus and cortical white matter was involved for at least 24 hours. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated a striatocapsular infarct in patient 1 and complete MCA infarction in patient 2, correlating with the presumed ischemic area in acute ultrasound examinations. The patient with complete MCA infarction showed missing contrast enhancement in the entire hemisphere of the affected side in follow-up SHI examinations. He died of malignant space-occupying brain edema. In the patient with the striatocapsular infarction, reappearance of echo-contrast enhancement in the ischemic area was assessable after 1 week. CONCLUSIONS: SHI may identify focal abnormalities of cerebral echo-contrast enhancement in acute hemispheric stroke. Furthermore, this technique helps to determine size, localization, and prognosis of the ischemic region and could be useful for bedside assessment of echo-contrast agent distribution related to brain tissue perfusion.
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ranking = 717.96577743252
keywords = nucleus
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4/199. Palatal myoclonus--a case report.

    Palatal myoclonus is usually due to a brainstem or cerebellar lesion disrupting the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway. Rarely it may be caused by a cortical lesion. The precipitating factor in 70% of all cases is an infarct. We describe an unusual case of a patient with palatal myoclonus who had an old ipsilateral cerebellar infarct and a new contralateral subcortical (corona radiata) infarct. We postulate that the new infarct caused disinhibition of the old cerebellar infarct, resulting in palatal myoclonus. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain did not show any hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus. Her myoclonus proved refractory to clonazepam, valproate and phenytoin.
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ranking = 358.98288871626
keywords = nucleus
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5/199. magnetic resonance imaging and angiography in cerebral fungal vasculitis.

    We report on an 11-year old girl treated for leukemia who developed infarcts in the right lentiform nucleus and temporal lobe. magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed mild intraluminal irregularities in the right carotid syphon and stenosis of the right proximal middle cerebral artery, suggesting vasculitis. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up showed evolution of the initial infarct into an abscess. Stereotactic biopsy disclosed filaments of aspergillus. This report emphasizes the fact that cerebral aspergillosis should be considered if MRA and MRI are indicative of vasculitis and cerebral infarction in immunosuppressed children.
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keywords = nucleus
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6/199. Ischemic stroke and migraine in childhood: coincidence or causal relation?

    Although migraine is an accepted cause of cerebral infarction in adults, this association is less well recognized in children. We present two children with migraine and cerebral infarction, which we regard as migrainous stroke, though neither patient fulfills all criteria of the International headache Society for the diagnosis of migrainous infarction. review of the literature concerning examples of migraine-associated stroke in childhood suggests that these criteria are too restrictive to comprise the majority of migrainous strokes, especially in this age group.
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7/199. An analysis of atrophy in the medial mammillary nucleus following hippocampal and fornix lesions in humans and nonhuman primates.

    Lesions of the hippocampal formation or transections of the fornix are followed by shrinkage of the medial mammillary nucleus (MMN). We determined whether the shrinkage of this nucleus was due to loss and/or shrinkage of neurons in addition to the loss of neuropil. We examined the MMN in a patient (KB) with an infarct that led to marked atrophy of the left hippocampus and subiculum, leaving the right MMN intact. Unbiased, stereological measurement techniques were used to compare the total cell number and individual neuronal cross-sectional areas in both left and right MMN in this patient and in two control human brains. We also analyzed the MMN in four macaque monkeys that underwent experimental unilateral transections of the fornix. The volume of the MMN on the lesioned side in KB was 55% of the unlesioned side (2.8 mm(3) vs 5.1 mm(3)); the MMN in the monkey cases were reduced to 47-58% of the volume of the nonlesioned side. neurons in the deafferented MMN of KB and of the monkey subjects were decreased in cross-sectional area (16-20%, P < 0.0001). There was a trend toward decreased cell numbers (11-15%) on the lesioned side in all cases. We have estimated that the loss in cell number and shrinkage of remaining cells contribute negligibly to the 45% reduction in MMN volume. Therefore, the loss of neuropil (dendrites and afferent and efferent axons) appears to be the major contributor to the change in MMN volume.
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ranking = 2153.8973322976
keywords = nucleus
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8/199. Thrombosis of the deep cerebral veins with excessive bilateral infarction in a premature infant with the thrombogenic 4G/4G genotype of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    We report on a preterm infant with deep cerebral venous thrombosis, a rare condition in this age group. This premature infant had a gestational age of 33 weeks and normal development until day 18, when he presented with tonic seizures and a tense fontanelle. Ultrasound and computed tomography revealed bilateral haemorrhagic infarction of the whole region drained by the deep cerebral veins, including the periventricular white matter, thalamus and choroid plexus. The child was homozygous for the 4G allele of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G promoter polymorphism. CONCLUSION: In patients with bilateral cerebral infarction, thrombosis of the deep cerebral veins should be considered. In addition the role of prothrombotic risk factors, including PAI-1 4G/5G promoter polymorphism, in cerebral vein thrombosis should be clarified in a multicentre study.
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9/199. Loss of psychic self-activation after paramedian bithalamic infarction.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Loss of psychic self-activation has been described after bilateral lesions to the globus pallidus, striatum, and white matter of the frontal lobes, but it is a very rare sign of bithalamic lesions. The exact functional-anatomic mechanism underlying loss of psychic self-activation following bithalamic lesions remains to be elucidated. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present clinical, neuropsychological, structural, and functional neuroimaging data of an 18-month follow-up period of a man with prominent loss of psychic self-activation after coronary arteriography. Except for memory decline, accompanying symptoms remained restricted to the acute phase. The neurobehavioral syndrome consisted mainly of apathy, indifference, poor motivation, and flattened affect, and this remained unchanged during the entire follow-up period. MRI showed a bithalamic infarction involving the nucleus medialis thalami bilaterally. Single-photon emission CT revealed a severe relative hypoperfusion of both thalami, a relative hypoperfusion of both nuclei caudati, and a relative hypoperfusion mesiofrontally. CONCLUSIONS: Single-photon emission CT data support the hypothesis that the neurobehavioral manifestations after bithalamic paramedian infarction are caused by disruption of the striatal-ventral pallidal-thalamic-frontomesial limbic loop. Probably, bilateral disruption at different levels of the striatal-ventral pallidal-thalamic-frontomesial loop may lead to a similar clinical picture consisting of loss of psychic self-activation.
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ranking = 358.98288871626
keywords = nucleus
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10/199. Hypersexuality and hemiballism due to subthalamic infarction.

    OBJECTIVE: A 70-year-old right-handed man presented with a subthalamic infarction followed by persistent hypersexuality and hemiballism. A lacunar infarction 1 cm in diameter was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities would be detected in cortical areas related to his neurobehavioral symptoms. BACKGROUND: Statistical validation of the regional metabolic changes that may relate to neuropsychiatric symptoms has been elusive. Relating metabolic changes to neuropsychiatric symptoms is especially important in unique neurobehavioral cases. METHOD: Quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was obtained for a single-subject comparison with scans from 60 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Substantial glucose hypometabolism (p <0.001, uncorrected; [df = 56]) was identified in the subthalamic nucleus at the site of the lacunar infarction. Hypermetabolism (p <0.01) was identified within the basal forebrain and temporal lobes, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices (areas previously associated with hypersexuality), and striatum (p <0.001) ipsilateral to the stroke (areas known to relate to hemiballism). CONCLUSIONS: Single-subject statistical parametric mapping may improve our understanding of unique neurobehavioral cases.
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ranking = 71755.777244028
keywords = thalamic nucleus, nucleus
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