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1/14. Pineoblastoma showing unusual ventricular extension in a young adult--case report.

    A 19-year-old male presented with a 4-week history of headache. Neurological examination showed bilateral papilledema. Computed tomography revealed a pineal region mass with remarkable obstructive hydrocephalus. magnetic resonance imaging showed a pineal region tumor continuously invading through the tectum into the cerebral aqueduct and the fourth ventricle with the preservation of the adjacent structures. The tumor appeared an iso- to hypointense mass on T1-weighted images, a heterogeneous iso- to hyperintense mass on T2-weighted images, and a heterogeneously enhanced mass after administration of contrast medium. Histological examination after endoscopic biopsy confirmed that the tumor was a pineoblastoma. radiotherapy was given to the whole brain and the spinal cord, and magnetic resonance imaging showed complete remission of the tumor. Pineoblastomas are highly malignant tumors with seeding potential through the neighboring ventricle or along the meninges, and this type of tumor becomes larger with local extension. We found no previous reports of the continuous extension into the fourth ventricle. The present case showed ventricular extension with minimal mass effect to adjacent structures, and did not disturb ventricular configuration. According to the unusual finding of ventricular extension, this rare case of pineoblastoma requires adjuvant chemotherapy.
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2/14. Third ventricular plasma-cell lesion with delayed intraventricular transudation of contrast medium.

    We report a patient presenting with hydrocephalus secondary to a posterior third ventricular plasma-cell lesion which exhibited delayed transudation of contrast medium into the adjacent aqueduct and fourth ventricle.
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3/14. Surgical approach to the fourth ventricle cavity through the cerebellomedullary fissure.

    Lesions of the fourth ventricle represent a challenge to neurosurgeons because of severe deficits that occur following injury to the delicate structures in the ventricle wall and floor. The conventional approach to the fourth ventricle is by splitting the vermis on the suboccipital surface of the cerebellum. In the last 9 years, a series of 21 patients in our clinic underwent microsurgical tumor resection by the unilateral transcerebellomedullary fissure approach. The patients had various pathologies including hemangioblastoma, epidermoid tumor, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, low grade astrocytoma, choroid plexus carcinoma, choroid plexus papilloma, adenocarcinoma in the pons, and cavernoma in the medulla. Total removal was achieved in all but three cases. One death occurred 2 months after surgery due to pulmonary complication. In the follow-up period of 2 months to 5 years, the preoperative symptoms disappeared in all cases except one with a brainstem lesion. By a unilateral transcerebellomedullary fissure approach, it is possible to provide sufficient operative space from aqueduct to obex without splitting the vermis. This approach needs meticulous dissection of the fissure and preservation of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and its branches.
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4/14. ventriculostomy in a tumor involving the third ventricular floor.

    Recently, endoscopic management has gotten preference over open surgical treatment in selected cases of intraventricular tumors. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) appears unfeasible when tumors extend to the third ventricular floor region due to the risk of perforators and injury to the basilar artery. We report the case of a 12-year-old male with symptoms of acute, chronic, raised intracranial pressure. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a posterior third ventricular tumor involving the aqueductal and floor regions. The ETV was done after clearing the floor by partial tumor resection, keeping the dorsum sellae as the major anatomical landmark. The patient improved satisfactorily and was given adjuvant radiotherapy, and the need for an external shunt was completely eliminated. We conclude that ETV appears worth trying, even in third ventricular tumors involving the floor region if they can be cleared from the tumor keeping the dorsum sellae as the major anatomical landmark.
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keywords = aqueduct
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5/14. One stage removal of periaqueductal glioma in adult via infratentorial supracerebellar and transaqueductal approaches.

    Most cases of periaqueductal tumours were found in children and adolescents, so treatment modalities in adults are not evaluated yet. A case of 40 years old woman with tectal and periaqueductal protoplasmatic astrocytoma grade II with history of headache and episodes of syncope is described. MRI showed triventricular hydrocephalus. After a shunt procedure she was doing well for about 15 months. Then she became somnolent, disoriented, and Parinaud syndrome appeared. The solid tumour was resected microsurgically in one stage. A part of it was removed via the supracerebellar infratentorial approach and tectal plate incision. The remainder of the tumour was removed through the fourth ventricle and the aqueduct which was filled by tumour mass. Postoperatively bilateral ptosis, vertical gaze palsy, slight horizontal gaze limitation and pupilloplegia were the main neurological sequelae. They all almost completely resolved within a year. The patient is doing well two and half years after the surgery. MRI showed patency of the aqueduct and no residual tumour. The authors suggest, that direct surgical attempt at total tumour removal should be considered in cases of periaqueductal and tectal gliomas. They also believe it is the first described case, in whom this type of tumour was totally removed by a combined transtectal and transaqueductal route.
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ranking = 14
keywords = aqueduct
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6/14. Central neurocytoma in third and fourth ventricles with aqueductal involvement.

    Central neurocytomas are characterized by their intraventricular locations, usually arising from the lateral ventricles and their benign clinical course. Variations in location, histology and clinical behaviour have been reported in recent years. The authors present two cases of central neurocytomas arising in the third and fourth ventricles with aqueductal involvement. The atypical features in their location and behaviour are discussed. The cases represent the extended spectrum of central neurocytomas.
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ranking = 5
keywords = aqueduct
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7/14. Symptomatic subependymoma--a case report.

    Subependymoma is a rare, slow-growing, benign noninvasive tumor of the central nervous system that may be located in the fourth ventricle, the septum pellucidum, the third and the lateral ventricles, the aqueduct, and the proximal spinal cord. Symptoms, if any, usually result either from direct compression of the brain stem or from acute hydrocephalus due to occlusion of the foramen of Monro or aqueduct of Sylvius. In this report, we describe a case of subependymoma of the lateral ventricle with headache in a young female patient. This is the first reported case subependymoma in korea that was documented along with Magnetic resonance image.
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keywords = aqueduct
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8/14. Neurofibromatosis presenting with aqueductal stenosis due to a tumor of the aqueduct: case report.

    A 17-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis presented with delayed puberty and epileptic seizures of recent onset. A computed tomographic scan revealed aqueductal stenosis due to a tumor of the aqueduct. This tumor was found at autopsy to be a pilocytic astrocytoma. Aqueductal stenosis in neurofibromatosis is uncommon and has been considered to be a result of periaqueductal gliosis. This seems to be the first report of neurofibromatosis associated with a tumor of the aqueduct.
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ranking = 12
keywords = aqueduct
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9/14. The interventricular extension of choroid plexus papillomas.

    Four cases of choroid plexus papilloma extending through the foramen of Monro are presented. All four patients were evaluated by contrast-enhanced CT and two of these were also evaluated by neurosonography. No other intraventricular tumor commonly extends through a ventricular outlet. The radiographic demonstration of this extension of an intraventricular mass through the foramen of Monro, cerebral aqueduct, or foramen of Luschka or Magendie represents an ancillary diagnostic sign of choroid plexus papilloma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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10/14. Psychiatric presentation of third ventricular colloid cyst. A case report.

    A case of colloid cyst of the third ventricle in a patient presenting with delusional depressive syndrome, in clear consciousness and with minimal cognitive impairment, is reported. The possible pathogenesis of the syndrome is discussed in the light of the reported association between aqueduct stenosis, diencephalic dysfunction, hydrocephalus, and psychotic symptoms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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