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1/107. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea in spongiform dysplasia of the cranium: an unusual presentation of neurofibromatosis.

    A 20-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis presented with CSF rhinorrhoea. Spongiform dysplasia of the cranium was found. The dysplastic bone contained CSF. The exact site of the CSF fistula into the calvarium and into the paranasal sinuses could not be detected on investigation but nasal packing of the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses controlled the rhinorrhoea. The unique features of this case are presented along with a brief review of the literature.
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keywords = nasal
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2/107. Transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital defects of the skull base in children.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine imaging findings and methods of endoscopic treatment of congenital skull base defects in children. DESIGN: Retrospective study and case series. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. patients: Four patients (aged 12 and 14 months and 8 and 13 years) were included from 1995 to 1997. Three presented with a nasal glioma, which was recurrent in 1 case. The fourth patient presented with bacterial meningitis due to a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to locate the defect of the skull base. INTERVENTION: Transnasal endoscopic resection of the glioma or the meningocele, with immediate repair of the skull base defects using free mucosal flaps and/or pediculized mucosal flaps and/or conchal cartilage together with fibrin glue and nasal packing during a 3-week period. RESULTS: None of the 4 patients has experienced recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leaks or postoperative meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: The transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital meningoceles is a reliable technique in select pediatric patients. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide information that can be used to help the surgical procedure.
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ranking = 4
keywords = nasal
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3/107. Intracranial mucocele as a complication of endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Endoscopic repair of an anterior cranial fossa cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula has gained widespread acceptance. We report a case of mucocele development at the site of an endoscopic CSF leak repair. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old woman underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal obstructive symptoms. The surgery was complicated by an intraoperative CSF leak from the posterior cribriform plate/anterior sphenoid, which was repaired immediately using bone and mucosa grafts. Two years postoperatively, a 13-mm anterior cranial base mass was found incidentally. This mass increased to 20 mm over the next year. INTERVENTION: The anterior cranial base mass was excised via a right frontal craniotomy and confirmed histologically to be a mucocele. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic repair of an anterior cranial base CSF fistula with mucosal grafts may lead to formation of a mucocele.
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keywords = nasal
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4/107. CSF rhinorrhoea following treatment with dopamine agonists for massive invasive prolactinomas.

    OBJECTIVE: The management of CSF rhinorrhoea following dopamine agonist (DA) treatment for invasive prolactinomas is difficult and there is no clear consensus for its treatment. Our objective was therefore to investigate the different treatments for this condition. DESIGN AND patients: We examined the case notes of five patients with invasive prolactinomas and CSF rhinorrhoea following DA treatment. The different ways in which this complication had been managed is detailed along with a review of the literature. RESULTS: Five patients aged 24-67 years (3 male) with massive invasive prolactinomas (serum prolactin 95000-500000 mU/l) eroding the skull base were treated with dopamine agonists (3 bromocriptine, 1 cabergoline and 1 both). CSF rhinorrhoea developed in all patients between 1 week and 4 months after commencing dopamine agonist treatment. In two patients (cases 1 and 4), CSF rhinorrhoea ceased within a few days of stopping bromocriptine but restarted when treatment was resumed. One of these (case 4), a 67-year-old woman had no further treatment and CSF leakage stopped completely. She died of unrelated medical problems 3 years later. In one patient staphylococcus aureus meningitis and pneumocephalus developed as a complication of CSF rhinorrhoea. Three patients had endoscopic nasal surgery to repair the fistula using muscle grafts, and to decompress the pituitary tumour, with success in two. One patient had intracranial surgery and dural repair, which was successful in sealing the leak. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that surgery as soon as is feasible is the treatment of choice for the repair of a CSF leak following dopamine agonist treatment. An additional strategy is the withdrawal of dopamine agonist to allow tumour re-growth to stop the leak.
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5/107. Intrasphenoidal encephalocele and spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea.

    Intrasphenoidal encephalocele is a rare clinical entity. In the international literature only 16 cases have been reported up today, with female predominance. Clinically they manifest at middle and advanced ages (40-67 years), when spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea or recurrent meningitis occurs. We present our case, a 46 years old female, who had CSF rhinorrhoea from the right vestibule for 10 months. The diagnosis was based on the history and the high-resolution brain and skull base CT-scanning in conjunction with opaque fluid injection in the subarachnoidal space through a lumbar puncture. She was successfully treated with an operation, through an endonasal trans-ethmoid microendoscopic approach, using the Draf and Stammberger technique. We discuss the pathogenesis of the intrasphenoidal encephalocele, the existence of small occult defects in the skull base, which cause, at the middle and advanced ages, CSF fistula with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea and/or recurrent meningitis. Finally we emphasize the advantages of the endonasal surgical approach for the treatment of this condition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nasal
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6/107. Successful closure of recurrent traumatic csf rhinorrhea using the free rectus abdominis muscle flap.

    BACKGROUND: We present two patients in whom a free rectus abdominis muscle flap was used to close recurrent traumatic CSF rhinorrhea. CASE DESCRIPTION: CT scan of both patients showed frontal lobe atrophy and porencephaly after contusional hematoma. In the first patient, because the site of CSF leakage was not identified and the patient underwent three unsuccessful attempts to close the fistula using the fascia lata, we treated the patient by unifying all paranasal sinuses and by filling them with a free rectus abdominis muscle flap. In the second patient, CSF rhinorrhea recurred 6 years after closure of the fistula using the fascia lata. The patient underwent separation of a porencephalic cyst from the paranasal sinus and a free muscle flap was placed extradurally, because the CSF pulse pressure in the enlarged left anterior horn eroded the previously repaired fascia lata, resulting in the recurrence of CSF leakage. CONCLUSION: Although duraplasty is the primary procedure for repairing dural fistulas, the vascularized free muscle flap is an alternative method when the location of the fistula is not identified or the patient with recurrent CSF rhinorrhea has severe frontal lobe atrophy and porencephaly.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nasal
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7/107. Identification of intranasal cerebrospinal fluid leaks by topical application with fluorescein dye.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a safe new technique for intraoperative identification of the site of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea after intracranial or intranasal surgery is a known potential complication with significant morbidity and mortality. It is currently accepted that endoscopic intranasal management of CSF rhinorrhea is the preferred method of surgical repair, with higher success rates and less morbidity than intracranial surgical repair in selected cases. Accurate identification of the site of CSF leakage is necessary for a successful endoscopic surgical repair. Computer tomography (CT) with or without intrathecal contrast and preoperative nasal endoscopy are frequently used to preoperatively localize the site of the leak. Intrathecal fluorescein administered immediately before surgery has aided in the intraoperative identification of the site of CSF leak in 25-64% of patients undergoing endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea in whom preoperative CT scanning and nasal endoscopy had not identified the site of CSF leak. Intrathecal fluorescein, however, has been associated with severe complications, such as lower extremity weakness, numbness, generalized seizures, opisthotonus, and cranial nerve deficits. We present three cases of CSF rhinorrhea in which fluorescein was applied intranasally during the endoscopic surgical repair. Ten percent fluorescein was applied to the nose with a cotton swab. Under endoscopic visualization the fluorescein changed its fluorescent color from amber/yellow to a dark green and was found streaming from high in the nasal cavity, which led to accurate identification of the site of the CSF leak.
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ranking = 5.0473678837747
keywords = nasal, nose
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8/107. Transnasal endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea.

    The complications associated with the employment of neurosurgical techniques for the management of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea has led to the development of extracranial approaches. The nasal endoscope can be used to improve visualisation of the site of the leak and to facilitate free graft or septal flap placement. This ensures a high rate of dural defect healing with minimal morbidity. This study describes four cases with CSF fistulas that were repaired endoscopically and the specific surgical techniques that were used. The authors believe that, in carefully selected cases, transnasal endoscopic management of CSF leaks can be the initial surgical treatment of choice.
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ranking = 3
keywords = nasal
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9/107. Transnasal penetrating brain injury with a ball-pen.

    We report a case of a 44-year-old man with 1 day's history of epistaxis. He was an in-patient in a psychiatric ward with a history of depression. He had CSF rhinorrhoea, was confused and had no focal neurological deficits. A full length pencil was removed from his left nostril in the emergency department. CT of the brain revealed a tract, but also suggested another foreign body in the inter-hemispheric space. He had a para-sagittal craniotomy and a 14 cm ball-point pen was found lying between the two cerebral hemispheres. This was removed and the patient made an uneventful recovery. This is the first report of an attempted suicide by transnasal insertion of a ballpoint pen intracranially.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = nasal
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10/107. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) in skull base repairs and CSF leakage.

    This report aims to summarise the current role of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery (EES) for skull base and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage repair, to provide some guidelines for the clinical diagnosis and technical procedures of repair, to demonstrate the limits of this approach and to discuss the Belgian experience of the recent years. Endoscopic surgery for chronic sinus disease is being performed with increasing frequency and CSF leak is an significant potential complication of this surgery, although the incidence of osteo-meningeal perforations in endonasal sinus surgery is below 1% overall. CSF leakage bears the risk of meningeal or intracranial infection and complication and therefore should be repaired as soon as recognised. Following proper localisation of the leak, repair is safely performed in most of the cases by endonasal route with the help of free mucoperiostal flaps taken from the inferior or middle turbinates. This also applies for lesions of other aetiologies. The Belgian data support the statement that the endonasal endoscopic approach is a suitable and successful technique to close CSF leaks in the vast majority of our patients.
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ranking = 4
keywords = nasal
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