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1/4. Intrasphenoidal encephalocele and spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea.

    Intrasphenoidal encephalocele is a rare clinical entity. In the international literature only 16 cases have been reported up today, with female predominance. Clinically they manifest at middle and advanced ages (40-67 years), when spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea or recurrent meningitis occurs. We present our case, a 46 years old female, who had CSF rhinorrhoea from the right vestibule for 10 months. The diagnosis was based on the history and the high-resolution brain and skull base CT-scanning in conjunction with opaque fluid injection in the subarachnoidal space through a lumbar puncture. She was successfully treated with an operation, through an endonasal trans-ethmoid microendoscopic approach, using the Draf and Stammberger technique. We discuss the pathogenesis of the intrasphenoidal encephalocele, the existence of small occult defects in the skull base, which cause, at the middle and advanced ages, CSF fistula with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea and/or recurrent meningitis. Finally we emphasize the advantages of the endonasal surgical approach for the treatment of this condition.
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2/4. Rhinorrhoea feigning cerebrospinal fluid leak: nine illustrative cases.

    Before contemplating surgery for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea it is vital that the correct diagnosis is established. This can be done using immunofixation of beta-2-transferrin, that is nearly always positive in cases of CSF rhinorrhoea. fluorescein lumbar puncture is useful in establishing the exact site of a leak and also in confirming the absence of a leak where the clinical suspicion is high but the beta-2-transferrin is negative. High resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning is a useful radiological investigation for identifying a bony defect. We present nine patients who presented with clear rhinorrhoea that was clinically highly suggestive of a CSF leak. Three of these patients had undergone previous craniotomies for presumed CSF rhinorrhoea. The diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhoea was excluded in all patients using beta-2-transferrin with or without fluorescein lumbar puncture. The authors believe that measurement of beta-2-transferrin should be mandatory before surgery for CSF rhinorrhoea.
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3/4. Unanticipated complication of percutaneous radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy: rhinorrhea: report of three cases and a cadaver study.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Several neurosurgical procedures have been developed for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: vascular decompression of the trigeminal root in the brainstem, percutaneous trigeminal ganglion procedures, and external beam radiosurgery. Percutaneous radiofrequency electrodes target the trigeminal fibers in the gasserian ganglion through the foramen ovale. Several complications of radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy (RF-TR) have been described, including puncture of the carotid artery, the cavernous sinus, and the cranial nerves. This study presents a very rare complication of percutaneous RF-TR, rhinorrhea, and attempts to define its mechanism. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Of 2375 patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia who underwent 2958 percutaneous RF-TR procedures, 3 developed subsequent rhinorrhea, which resolved spontaneously in 2 to 3 days. TECHNIQUE: Two formalin-fixed cadavers were dissected to demonstrate the relationship between the foramen ovale and the tuba auditiva and the mechanism of rhinorrhea. CONCLUSION: This article presents a very rare complication of RF-TR. Rhinorrhea and/or cerebrospinal fluid fistulae in the nasopharyngeal cavity are benign complications of RF-TR that result from puncturing both the membranous portion of the tuba auditiva (eustachian tube) and Meckel's cave with the rhizotomy needle.
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4/4. empty sella syndrome, diagnosed as allergic rhinitis.

    Unilateral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea as the only manifestation of the primary empty sella syndrome is a rare event. A case of a middle-aged male patient complaining for intermittent unilateral rhinorrhea, which started 5 months earlier, is reported. The persistence of this state was attributed to an allergic rhinitis. The initial work-up excluded the above diagnosis and an erroneous radiological diagnosis led to a puncture of the left maxillary sinus. A lateral X-ray of the skull and CT scan led to the diagnosis of empty sella syndrome, possibly due to an adenoma or a meningocele.
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