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1/33. Delayed postoperative CSF rhinorrhea of intrasellar arachnoid cyst.

    CSF rhinorrhea due to a transsphenoidal approach usually follows accidental or intentional arachnoid opening. We report a patient with an intrasellar arachnoid cyst, who developed delayed onset of CSF rhinorrhea. A sixty-two-year-old man presented with bitemporal type visual field defect for the last 3 years. With the diagnosis of arachnoid cyst or Rathke's cleft cyst, based on MRI findings of intra-and supra-sellar cyst with CSF intensity, he successfully underwent transsphenoidal surgery without evidence of intra-operative CSF leakage. He developed CSF rhinorrhea one week later. This needed another operation for sellar floor repair. The pathomechanism of this delayed onset is explained as follows. Incomplete or oneway communication of subarachnoid space to cyst cavity, unrecognized during surgery, might cause delayed onset of CSF rhinorrhea. By using MRI, identification of the residual gland, which was compressed posteriorly, is useful for differentiating an arachnoid cyst from other cystic lesions. In highly suspect cases, even without evidence of intra-operative CSF leakage, peri-operative measures to prevent occurrence of postoperative CSF rhinorrhea are required.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sella
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2/33. Chronic hydrocephalus and suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with rhinorrhea.

    Spontaneous CSF leak with rhinorrhea may be secondary to many intracranial congenital and acquired conditions. However, no cases of chronic hydrocephalus and suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with rhinorrhea as the unique clinical manifestation are reported in the literature. A 29-year-old-man with four-month history of episodic rhinorrhea had a large suprasellar arachnoid cyst with chronic hydrocephalus on magnetic resonance. Endoscopic ventricular fenestration of the cyst failed to obtain remission of the CSF leak, because it was not possible to fenestrate the cyst with the almost completely obliterated suprasellar cistern. Clinical remission occurred after restoration of the CSF flow from the cyst to the cisternal spaces by a direct approach. The CSF leak in this case was secondary to the chronic compression over the dural and bone structures of the sellar region by the cyst or chronic hydrocephalus.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
keywords = sella
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3/33. Delayed cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea seven months after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma--case report.

    A 51-year-old female had undergone transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma producing growth hormone. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage occurred during surgery. The sella turcica and sphenoid sinus were packed with abdominal fat and fibrin glue, buttressing the closure with a fragment of sphenoid bone. No CSF rhinorrhea occurred postoperatively. Severe meningitis developed 7 months later. CSF rhinorrhea occurred 10 days after readmission. Exploration through the transsphenoidal approach identified a small hole at the floor of the sella and CSF leaking into the sphenoid sinus through the hole. The CSF leakage stopped after the second surgery. Delayed CSF rhinorrhea without bromocriptine administration is very rare. The cause of delayed CSF rhinorrhea remains unclear. CSF rhinorrhea should be suspected if meningitis develops even months after transsphenoidal surgery.
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ranking = 0.90167497254019
keywords = sella turcica, turcica, sella
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4/33. cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea associated with untreated prolactinoma--case report.

    An 80-year-old female presented with non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to untreated prolactinoma, with simultaneous development of bilateral leg pains and gait disturbance due to lumbar canal stenosis. neuroimaging showed an intrasellar mass extending into the sphenoid sinus, right cavernous sinus, and suprasellar cistern. Computed tomography cisternography clearly showed the CSF pathway through the tumor. Subtotal removal of the tumor and reconstruction of the sellar floor via a transsphenoidal approach resulted in resolution of the CSF rhinorrhea. Both the invasive features and/or spontaneous shrinkage of the tumor might have created the abnormal CSF pathway. The clinical manifestation of lumbar canal stenosis might be triggered by such profound CSF leakage.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = sella
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5/33. Sternberg's canal--cause of congenital sphenoidal meningocele.

    We present a case of a 29-year-old female complaining of right-sided watery nasal discharge. Radiological investigations identified an intrasphenoidal meningocele. The origin of the meningocele was pinpointed to the right parasellar region and was confirmed surgically. The parasellar bony defect appeared to be due to persistence of the lateral craniopharyngeal canal (Sternberg's canal). Therefore, we assume a congenital origin for the intrasphenoidal meningocele found in the patient. Acquired bony defects of the sphenoid sinus are unlikely at the fusion planes of the different sphenoid bone components. knowledge of the complex ontogeny of the sphenoid bone is an important key to differentiating between congenital and acquired sphenoid sinus meningoceles.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = sella
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6/33. Cerebrospinal fluid fistula as the presenting manifestation of pituitary adenoma: case report with a 4-year follow-up.

    We report the case of a young woman who presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to an undiagnosed and untreated pituitary adenoma. The tumor had extended well beyond sella turcica and caused bony erosion. The patient initially refused surgery and was treated with bromocriptine and a radiation therapy. CSF leakage did not improved and she was submitted to surgery by the transsphenoidal approach with removal of a tumor mass located in sphenoid sinus and sellar region. Origin of the leak was localized and repaired with fascia lata and a lumbar subarachnoid drain was left in place for 5 days. After 4 years she has normal serum PRL levels and no rhinorrhea. The management, complications and mechanisms involved in this rare condition are discussed.
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ranking = 0.90167497254019
keywords = sella turcica, turcica, sella
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7/33. Extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for parasellar tumors. Technical note.

    The authors have developed an extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for resection of tumors located in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region that are difficult to remove via the conventional transsphenoidal approach. Surgery was performed using this approach in 14 patients with large pituitary adenomas, three patients with craniopharyngiomas, and one patient with a meningioma of the tuberculum sellae. The submucosal dissection of the nasal septum used in the conventional transsphenoidal approach was extended to the superior lateral wall of the nasal cavity to expose the bony surface of the superior turbinate lying under the nasal mucosa. Submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy widened the area visualized through the conventional transsphenoidal approach both superiorly and laterally. This provided a safer and less invasive access to lesions in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region through the sphenoid sinus. Using this approach the authors encountered no postoperative complications, such as olfactory disturbance, cranial nerve palsy, or arterial injury. In this article the authors present the surgical methods used in this approach.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sella
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8/33. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea associated with chronic renal failure--case report.

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of headache and nasal discharge on the left for 3 months which was later on proved to be cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neurological examination found no abnormalities except bilateral papilledema. neuroimaging demonstrated enlargement of the lamina cribrosa foramina through which the olfactory nerves pass, as well as empty sella and cerebral cortical atrophy. Bone mineral densitometry showed osteopenia. CSF Ca and blood parathyroid hormone levels were elevated. CSF pressure was 280 mmH2O. Bilateral frontal craniotomy was performed to expose the anterior fossa. Foraminal enlargement at the lamina cribrosa was confirmed, and islands of extra-osseous calcifications on the arachnoid membrane were identified. The base of the anterior fossa was repaired intradurally with fascial graft and fibrin glue on both sides. No CSF leakage was noted at 1-year follow up. Spontaneous CSF leakage probably resulted from enlargement of the foramina at the lamina cribrosa due to Ca mobilization from bones and pseudotumor cerebri not to the extent of hydrocephalus caused by poor CSF absorption at the arachnoid granulations obliterated by extra-osseous calcareous accumulation.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = sella
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9/33. Endonasal endoscopic treatment of parasellar arachnoid cyst: report of a case.

    A 40-year-old man presented with intractable headache of 5-year duration and a 1-month history of intermittent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion with signal characteristics similar to that of CSF. The patient underwent endonasal endoscopic surgery of the sphenoid sinus and the fistula was reinforced with facia, muscle cartilage, and posterior septal flap while performing cystocisternostomy. The postoperative course was uneventfiul CSF leakage stopped, and headache improved. Postoperative imaging revealed total collapse of the cyst cavity. Based on our findings, endonasal endoscopic treatment of the sellar and parasellar arachnoid cysts, if presenting into the sphenoid sinus, could be an acceptable minimally invasive alternative to the conventional modalities.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = sella
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10/33. Endoscopic repair of spontaneous cerebro-spinal fluid rhinorrhoea: a report of 3 cases.

    Three cases of spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea were managed at the National University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Case 1 had bilateral leak secondary to empty sella syndrome and the rest two cases had unilateral leak. Four transnasal endoscopic approaches were performed on these three cases since March 1999. The role of intrathecal sodium fluorescein is highlighted in localising the CSF fistula. Case 3 required postoperative lumbar drain as an adjunct. No recurrent leak was noted on post operative follow up in Case 2 and 3 ranging from nine to thirty two months. A recurrent left leak at six months was noted in Case 1 which could likely be due to her sudden bout of cough attacks and patient refused further surgical intervention.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = sella
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