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1/70. Transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital defects of the skull base in children.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine imaging findings and methods of endoscopic treatment of congenital skull base defects in children. DESIGN: Retrospective study and case series. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. patients: Four patients (aged 12 and 14 months and 8 and 13 years) were included from 1995 to 1997. Three presented with a nasal glioma, which was recurrent in 1 case. The fourth patient presented with bacterial meningitis due to a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to locate the defect of the skull base. INTERVENTION: Transnasal endoscopic resection of the glioma or the meningocele, with immediate repair of the skull base defects using free mucosal flaps and/or pediculized mucosal flaps and/or conchal cartilage together with fibrin glue and nasal packing during a 3-week period. RESULTS: None of the 4 patients has experienced recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leaks or postoperative meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: The transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital meningoceles is a reliable technique in select pediatric patients. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide information that can be used to help the surgical procedure.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull
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2/70. skull base reconstruction utilizing titanium mesh in chronic CSF leakage repair.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Chronic cerebrospinal fluid leakage is a perplexing management problem in skull base surgery, as well as craniofacial and certain otolaryngologic procedures. When all less invasive techniques have been tried and have failed, craniotomy for direct repair is often done. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This case represents one such case in which the pathology found required an unusual application of a common surgical adjunct for correction. The patient in question had experienced CSF rhinorrhea intermittently for 10 years prior to presentation. Several intracranial procedures had failed to curtail the rhinorrhea, after failure of lumbar drainage and other less invasive procedures had also failed. The patient was taken to surgery again for an attempt to directly correct the CSF leak, after demonstration of the location of the leak was accomplished with the assistance of contrasted coronal CT images of the anterior fossa. TECHNIQUE: At the time of surgery, comminuted fractures of the floor of the anterior fossa were noted. These fractures were associated with multiple sites of dural impingement. Following meticulous repair of all dural injuries, reconstruction of the floor of the anterior fossa was accomplished with the use of titanium micro mesh. The mesh placement isolated the dura from further contact with the fracture surfaces, preventing recurrent dural injury. CONCLUSION: The use of titanium mesh in skull base surgery has previously been reported in craniofacial and cranial vault procedures. Its use in skull base applications may prove useful in certain situations. This patient remains asymptomatic nearly 2 years after its use, longer than with any previous procedures to correct his chronic CSF leakage.
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ranking = 0.47805329519753
keywords = skull, fracture
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3/70. CSF rhinorrhoea following treatment with dopamine agonists for massive invasive prolactinomas.

    OBJECTIVE: The management of CSF rhinorrhoea following dopamine agonist (DA) treatment for invasive prolactinomas is difficult and there is no clear consensus for its treatment. Our objective was therefore to investigate the different treatments for this condition. DESIGN AND patients: We examined the case notes of five patients with invasive prolactinomas and CSF rhinorrhoea following DA treatment. The different ways in which this complication had been managed is detailed along with a review of the literature. RESULTS: Five patients aged 24-67 years (3 male) with massive invasive prolactinomas (serum prolactin 95000-500000 mU/l) eroding the skull base were treated with dopamine agonists (3 bromocriptine, 1 cabergoline and 1 both). CSF rhinorrhoea developed in all patients between 1 week and 4 months after commencing dopamine agonist treatment. In two patients (cases 1 and 4), CSF rhinorrhoea ceased within a few days of stopping bromocriptine but restarted when treatment was resumed. One of these (case 4), a 67-year-old woman had no further treatment and CSF leakage stopped completely. She died of unrelated medical problems 3 years later. In one patient staphylococcus aureus meningitis and pneumocephalus developed as a complication of CSF rhinorrhoea. Three patients had endoscopic nasal surgery to repair the fistula using muscle grafts, and to decompress the pituitary tumour, with success in two. One patient had intracranial surgery and dural repair, which was successful in sealing the leak. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that surgery as soon as is feasible is the treatment of choice for the repair of a CSF leak following dopamine agonist treatment. An additional strategy is the withdrawal of dopamine agonist to allow tumour re-growth to stop the leak.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = skull
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4/70. Intrasphenoidal encephalocele and spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea.

    Intrasphenoidal encephalocele is a rare clinical entity. In the international literature only 16 cases have been reported up today, with female predominance. Clinically they manifest at middle and advanced ages (40-67 years), when spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea or recurrent meningitis occurs. We present our case, a 46 years old female, who had CSF rhinorrhoea from the right vestibule for 10 months. The diagnosis was based on the history and the high-resolution brain and skull base CT-scanning in conjunction with opaque fluid injection in the subarachnoidal space through a lumbar puncture. She was successfully treated with an operation, through an endonasal trans-ethmoid microendoscopic approach, using the Draf and Stammberger technique. We discuss the pathogenesis of the intrasphenoidal encephalocele, the existence of small occult defects in the skull base, which cause, at the middle and advanced ages, CSF fistula with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea and/or recurrent meningitis. Finally we emphasize the advantages of the endonasal surgical approach for the treatment of this condition.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = skull
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5/70. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) in skull base repairs and CSF leakage.

    This report aims to summarise the current role of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery (EES) for skull base and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage repair, to provide some guidelines for the clinical diagnosis and technical procedures of repair, to demonstrate the limits of this approach and to discuss the Belgian experience of the recent years. Endoscopic surgery for chronic sinus disease is being performed with increasing frequency and CSF leak is an significant potential complication of this surgery, although the incidence of osteo-meningeal perforations in endonasal sinus surgery is below 1% overall. CSF leakage bears the risk of meningeal or intracranial infection and complication and therefore should be repaired as soon as recognised. Following proper localisation of the leak, repair is safely performed in most of the cases by endonasal route with the help of free mucoperiostal flaps taken from the inferior or middle turbinates. This also applies for lesions of other aetiologies. The Belgian data support the statement that the endonasal endoscopic approach is a suitable and successful technique to close CSF leaks in the vast majority of our patients.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = skull
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6/70. Subdural and intraventricular traumatic tension pneumocephalus: case report.

    Simple pneumocephalus most frequently arises as a complication of a head injury in which a compound basal skull fracture with tearing of the meninges allows entry of air into the cranial cavity. It can also follow a neurosurgical operation. Tension traumatic pneumocephalus with intraventricular extension is an extremely rare, potentially lethal condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of subdural and intraventricular accidental tension pneumocephalus occurring in a 26-year-old man as a result of skull fracture. This case is combined with rhinorrhea and meningitis that suggest some difficulties to treat. The operative procedure associated with medical treatment was performed and a good result was obtained.
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ranking = 1.0257141216138
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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7/70. Subtotal petrosectomy in the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid fistulae of the lateral skull base.

    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae almost invariably lead to meningitis, even in the absence of other clinically obvious sequelae of the fistula such as a CSF fluid leak. The only effective means of reducing the risk of meningitis is surgical closure of the fistula. If surgery is to be recommended to patients with CSF fistulae even if they are currently asymptomatic, the morbidity of the procedure must be a principal determinant of the chosen technique. Recovery after the extracranial approach to a CSF fistula is much more rapid than after an intracranial procedure. The extracranial route is also free of the long-term risk of epilepsy which accompanies a craniotomy. The principal disadvantage of the lateral extracranial approach, failure of treatment, has been largely eliminated following studies into the obliteration of simple bony cavities using free adipose grafts. This paper describes our use of the extracranial approach to closure of CSF fistulae of the lateral skull base.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = skull
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8/70. Growing skull fracture of ethmoid: a report of two cases.

    We describe a rare sequel of ethmoid fracture--a growing skull fracture associated with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea following trauma sustained in adult life. The natural history of its development, diagnosis, and the results of surgery are discussed. The literature is reviewed with regard to aetiology, incidence, imaging characteristics and management of this rare post-traumatic complication.
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ranking = 2.5807792595765
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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9/70. Closure of recurrent frontal skull base defects with vascularized flaps -- a technical case report.

    Techniques for vascularized reconstruction of the anterior cranial fossa floor defects causing recurrent cerebrospinal fluid fistula are discussed in this report. The closure employs the use of local random- or axial-pattern vascularized flaps in simple cases. In complicated cases (for instance, status after repeated exploration) the tissue of the cranial base is severely compromised and shows low potential for healing. Non-vascularized grafts only add avital scars to the already present ones leading to recurrent fistulas. Free vascularized flaps show more mechanical strength and less scar contraction, resistance to infections and survive better in a compromised surrounding, thus leading to long term sealing in such cases. The technical issues of vascularized closure of defects of the frontal skull base are discussed in this report.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = skull
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10/70. Posttraumatic anosmia in craniofacial trauma.

    Although the clinical implications of anosmia can be significant, posttraumatic anosmia is generally given relatively little attention in the clinical setting. patients who sustain craniofacial trauma are most at risk. The incidence of posttraumatic anosmia varies according to the severity of injury and has an overall estimated incidence of 7%. Factors that increase the risk of developing anosmia include anterior skull base fractures, bilateral subfrontal lobe injury, dural lacerations, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage. recovery of function has been estimated to be approximately 10%. time of recovery, if it occurs, varies between 8 weeks and 2 years. Presented herein are the clinical, radiographic, pathophysiologic, and anatomic substrata of posttraumatic anosmia.
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ranking = 0.15935109839918
keywords = skull, fracture
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