Cases reported "Cerebrovascular Disorders"

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1/81. stroke--a medical emergency.

    Acute ischaemic stroke as an urgent-to-treat condition has gained a more prominent role in the consciousness of emergency physicians and neurologists over the past decade. This is mainly due to an increasing insight into the pathophysiological mechanism of ischaemia, the definition of therapeutical goals, such as reperfusion or neuroprotection, and the recent application of respective treatment strategies in large multicentre studies. This review article will focus on the emergency assessment of stroke patients, on general treatment strategies, and particularly on specific measures of intensive care therapy of stroke including thrombolysis, decompressive surgery, hypothermia and treatment of brain oedema.
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2/81. Vascular compression as a cause of superior oblique myokymia disclosed by thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging.

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of superior oblique myokymia in which thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appeared to show vascular compression of the trochlear nerve. methods: A 50-year-old woman presented with episodic monocular oscillopsia. Neuro-ophthalmologic examinations showed intermittent intorsional microtremor of her right eye, diagnosed as right superior oblique myokymia. Thin-slice (1.6 mm) MRI, using spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state, was employed to examine the trochlear nerve in its course through the ambient cistern. RESULTS: Imaging disclosed a branch of the posterior cerebral artery immediately adjacent to the right trochlear nerve. CONCLUSION: These magnetic resonance findings suggest that a cause of superior oblique myokymia may be vascular compression of the trunk of the trochlear nerve.
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3/81. Sequential magnetic resonance imaging findings in hypereosinophilia-induced encephalopathy.

    Hypereosiophilia-induced encephalopathy (HE) is a rare but well-described clinical syndrome. However, serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of HE have rarely been reported. We describe serial MRI findings of three patients with HE. The patients presented with acute confusion, focal neurological deficits and/or seizures. eosinophils in repeated blood tests were more than 3000/mm3 in all the patients. echocardiography in two patients showed findings consistent with eosinophilic endomyocardial fibrosis or global hypokinesia. The initial MRI revealed multiple high-signal lesions on T2-weighted images with gadolinium-DTPA enhancement on T1-weighted images, which were predominantly distributed in the border zone of the middle-anterior cerebral arteries and the middle-posterior cerebral arteries. The second MRIs taken prior to the initiation of steroid therapy showed that the lesions increased in size and number in the same area. The third MRIs performed long after the therapy showed that the lesions were shrunken. A brain biopsy specimen in one patient showed reactive gliosis following infarction with abundant intravascular eosinophils. The MRI-identified lesions in the patients with HE thus develop mainly in the border zone. The lesions occasionally increase in size and number and shrink if the eosinophilia is adequately treated. Although the nature of the MRI-identified lesions remains unclear, their pathogenesis may be related to multiple embolisms associated with concomitant cardiac abnormality and hypercoagulable state.
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4/81. Continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging findings in postpartum vasculopathy.

    Postpartum vasculopathy (PPV) is a rare heterogeneous nonatherosclerotic vasculopathy that occurs in the puerperium. It occurs spontaneously but may be triggered by vasoconstrictor substances. The angiographic findings vary and include narrowing of the intracranial arteries and vasospasm. The angiographic findings and the occurrence of ischemic infarcts suggest that cerebral blood flow (CBF) is impaired in PPV. The purpose of this study is to determine CBF in patients with PPV. The authors conducted a case study of 3 patients with clinical and laboratory criteria for PPV examined during a 2-year period. Clinical examination, computed tomography imaging, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral angiography, and continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion (CASL-PI) MRI were performed in all patients. Mean global CBF was determined, and perfusion maps were visually inspected. The CBF values and perfusion maps were correlated with the clinical symptoms and the neuroimaging findings. Three women were studied (22, 34, and 36 years old). The median time of presentation was 4 days postpartum. One presented with intracranial hemorrhage and diffuse arterial narrowing, the other 2 with stroke-like lesions, encephalopathy, and segmental narrowing mainly in the posterior circulation. CASL-PI was performed within 1 week of symptom onset in all 3 patients. Global mean CBF values were 51.8, 39.3, and 41.8 cc/100 g/min. Although global CBF was mildly diminished, it was above ischemic levels. Visual inspection of the CASL-PI perfusion maps did not reveal areas of focal hypoperfusion or hyperperfusion. In this series of patients with PPV, CBF was close to normal. Although angiography often reveals diffuse arterial narrowing, the CBF values encountered in this study do not support a state of generalized or focal oligoemia. Vasomotor tone may change intermittently in patients with PPV.
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5/81. Distal stump of an occluded intracranial vertebral artery at the vertebrobasilar junction mimicking a basilar artery aneurysm.

    The distal stump of an occluded intracranial vertebral artery (VA) can mimic a basilar artery aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar junction. Their differentiation is crucial to establishing the appropriate treatment. We report two cases with occlusion of the distal stump of the VA due to atherosclerosis and arterial dissection. Magnetic resonance images with three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state sequences are useful in revealing the occluded segment as a continuous anatomical structure from the proximal VA to the basilar artery. This information may prevent unnecessary exploratory surgery for a suspected basilar artery aneurysm.
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6/81. Cerebral and coronary gas embolism from the inhalation of pressurized helium.

    OBJECTIVE: inhalation of helium, which produces a change in the voice, is frequently used among young rock singers to improve their performance. DESIGN: A case report. SETTINGS: adult medical intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENT: A 23-yr-old singer, who accidentally inhaled helium from a high pressurized tank without pressure reduction, presented with transient loss of consciousness and chest pain. INTERVENTIONS: Electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, biochemical and toxicological analyses, echocardiography, coronary angiography were performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At admission, the patient slowly regained consciousness. An electrocardiogram showed significant ST elevations in leads I, aVL, and V4-V6. The chest radiograph was consistent with pulmonary congestion and pneumomediastinum. The echocardiogram showed normal sized heart chambers with hypokinesis of the left ventricular lateral wall. ethanol and urine cannabinoids were present in low concentrations, but no presence of opiates, methadone, cocaine, or amphetamines was documented. troponin t was positive. Elevation of ST segments gradually disappeared within 30 mins, the drowsiness within 10 hrs, and the thoracic pain within 24 hrs. coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries. The patient was discharged on day 3 without any symptoms and with normal electrocardiogram and chest radiograph. CONCLUSION: Accidental inhalation of helium under high pressure can cause symptomatic cerebral and coronary artery gas embolism.
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7/81. Obliteration of bilateral dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral arteries following repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    A 51-year-old man presented with loss of consciousness when he underwent urological examination at another hospital. CT scans showed subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebral angiography showed bilateral dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral arteries. Following ventricular drainage, the lesion was managed conservatively with blood pressure control but again ruptured on day 8. Cerebral angiography revealed narrowing of both the dissecting aneurysms. On day 11, the right vertebral artery had been spontaneously obliterated and the right dissecting aneurysm was filled in a retrograde fashion via the left vertebral artery. Proximal occlusion of the right vertebral artery was performed to prevent recanalization. Two months later, cerebral angiography revealed that both vertebral arteries were obliterated and the basilar artery and right posterior inferior cerebellar artery were filled via the right posterior communicating artery. The present case demonstrated that the hemodynamic status of bilateral dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery changed variably indicating the necessity of careful angiographic observation.
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8/81. stroke associated with addiction to heroin.

    During a five year period at the Harlem Hospital Center nine heroin addicts were seen with strokes. Four occurred after loss of consciousness following intravenous heroin. Two occurred in patients using heroin at the time, but were not related to overdose or to a particular recent injection. The youth of these patients and lack of other predisposing factors suggests that heroin played a role in their strokes. In the other three patients, the relationships of stroke to heroin is less persuasive. There are several possible mechanisms by which heroin abuse could lead to stroke.
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9/81. Central pain in the absence of functional sensory thalamus.

    Since the pioneering publication by Dejerine and Roussy, the thalamus has been commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of central pain. It is well known that cerebral lesions that spare the thalamus as well as both small and large ones within that structure produce similar pain syndromes, but could such pain develop if the thalamus were completely destroyed? CT scans of our patients suggested that it could. Moreover, exhaustive physiological explorations of the thalamus with macro- and microstimulation and microelectrode recordings in 2 more patients in whom CT scans suggested thalamic preservation despite massive suprathalamic infarcts, for the purpose of carrying out deep brain stimulation (DBS), revealed no evidence of ascending or descending diencephalic function. Their sensory examinations were similar to those of patients with congenital hemiatrophy who had undergone hemispherectomy. In 1 case, microstimulation of periaqueductal grey-periventricular grey (PAG-PVG) on the unaffected side of the brain induced the spectrum of responses correctly associated with these areas and during acute stimulation nearly abolished the patient's allodynia and hyperpathia. These observations suggest that processes occurring at a subdiencephalic level (or possibly ipsilaterally) may be involved in the generation of pain. stroke-induced central pain remains a therapeutic dilemma for the pain surgeon, and the mechanisms underlying this pain state remain a mystery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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10/81. Antidepressant treatment of pathologic laughing or crying in elderly stroke patients.

    Pathologic laughing or crying (PLC), a complication of many neurologic disorders, involves behavior that is either inappropriate to the context or to the patient's subjective feeling state. It is due to a dysregulation of the motoric components of emotional experience. PLC is distinct from, but often associated with, major depression. The relatively few reports on treatment of PLC are primarily with tricyclic antidepressants. We report the effective treatment of PLC due to stroke in three patients with nortriptyline or fluoxetine. The cases also illustrate the broad spectrum of depressive symptoms (from none to a major depression) seen in patients with PLC. We discuss treatment implications and directions for future research.
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