Cases reported "Cerebrovascular Disorders"

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1/107. Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

    PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. methods: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.
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2/107. Intra-arterial thrombolysis for perioperative stroke after open heart surgery.

    Recent major surgery is an exclusion criterion for thrombolysis. Six patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis after recent open heart surgery without clinically significant bleeding complications, although one patient developed a small, asymptomatic cerebellar hemorrhage. Intra-arterial thrombolysis may be an option for patients with cerebral embolism in the perioperative period.
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3/107. Vascular compression of the medulla oblongata by the vertebral artery: report of two cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Compression of the medulla oblongata by a tortuous vertebral artery is rare. We report two patients with this lesion who were treated with vascular decompression of the vertebral artery. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old man developed right hemiparesis with lower cranial nerve deficits, and a 47-year-old man developed left lower cranial nerve deficits and left cerebellar dysfunction. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tortuous vertebral artery compressing the medulla oblongata. INTERVENTION: In both patients, the compressed medulla oblongata was treated by detaching the vertebral artery from the medulla oblongata, shifting it, and anchoring it to the nearby dura mater. Postoperatively, both patients are asymptomatic and have returned to their previous jobs. CONCLUSION: Although compression of the medulla oblongata by a tortuous vertebral artery is rare, it can cause brainstem dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging clearly revealed the vascular compression in these patients. Surgical treatment was effective. The symptoms related to a tortuous vertebral artery and some techniques for surgical treatment are discussed. awareness of this rare lesion is necessary to ensure appropriate treatment.
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4/107. role of the omentum in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Beneficial post-operative changes in Alzheimer patients have been observed following omentum transposition to the brain. It is believed that these changes are to a certain degree due to the omentum's ability to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). Since the omentum is known to increase CBF and to have angiogenic, neurotransmitters and nerve growth substances in its tissues, it is theorized that these biological factors favorably affect still viable but deteriorating ischemic-sensitive neurons located within the Alzheimer brain. Being able to 'rescue' these neurons by increasing CBF and adding neurotrophic factors from the omentum are mechanisms which are believed to increase neuronal energy (ATP production) which leads to cognitive improvement.
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5/107. Transient postoperative occlusion of the superficial temporal--middle cerebral artery branch anastomosis: spasm, swelling, or thrombosis.

    Ten superficial temporal-middle cerebral artery branch anastomoses were followed by postoperatvie angiograms. The early angiograms revealed patent anastomosis in six patients. In two patients the superficila temporal artery was severely narrowed and tapered and the cerebral arteries were not visualized. In one the superficial temporal artery was not significantly narrowed but was only patent extracranically. In the remaining patient, the superficial temporal artery was completely occluded. The late angiograms showed the patency of the six originally patent anastomoses, and also complete patency of the three anastomoses in which the cerebral arteries were not visualized.
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6/107. Three cases of hyperperfusion syndrome identified by daily transcranial Doppler investigation after carotid surgery.

    BACKGROUND: cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (HS), occurs in 0.5-1% of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and may result in intracerebral haemorrhage and death. Aim: to diagnose HS by means of postoperative Transcranial Doppler (TCD). methods: between 1998 and 2001 nearly all 112 patients who underwent CEA were monitored for four days postoperatively by Transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: there were 3 patients with HS. All three showed TCD abnormalities hours before developing symptoms. One patient developed a full blown HS. Presumably, symptoms in the other two patients could be prevented by timely starting or restoring anti-hypertensive treatment. CONCLUSION: daily TCD investigation in all patients undergoing CEA seems an effective strategy for the presymptomatic detection of HS.
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7/107. Ipsilateral hyperperfusion after neck clipping of a giant internal carotid artery aneurysm. Case report.

    A 48-year-old woman exhibited hyperperfusion soon after undergoing a successful clip operation involving multiple clip placement for a giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a left paraclinoid giant aneurysm. Multiple clips were placed to obliterate the aneurysm during a 7-minute temporary ICA occlusion. Intraoperative Doppler ultrasound flowmetry showed that the blood flow through the ICA distal to the aneurysm increased from 71.6 ml/minute before clipping to 123.3 ml/minute after. The patient exhibited right hemiparesis and motor aphasia after the operation. Postoperative imaging studies revealed an increase in perfusion and diffuse edema in the left cerebral cortex. The symptoms and diffuse brain edema gradually resolved. In this case, increase in blood flow through the ICA distal to the aneurysm may have played an important role in the circulatory disturbance.
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8/107. Isolated cerebral perfusion for intraoperative cerebral malperfusion in type A aortic dissection.

    Cerebral malperfusion due to expansion of a false lumen can occur acutely during aortic repair when retrograde femoral perfusion is initiated. We detected this catastrophe by a rapid decrease in regional cerebral oxygenation and successfully treated it by immediate isolation of the cerebral circulation from the systemic circulation. The surgical management, including the above technique, for this rare event is described.
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9/107. Occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis.

    In a 58-year-old man who suffered a stroke and had multiple and extensive extracranial arterial occlusions, an anastomosis was completed between the right occipital artery and the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Cerebral angiograms performed two weeks post-operatively showed patent anastomosis and partial improvement of the posterior circulation.
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10/107. Postoperative hyperperfusion in a patient with a dural arteriovenous fistula with retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Hyperperfusion has been reported after carotid endarterectomy or stenting for stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Because few reports have examined postoperative hyperperfusion after treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs), we present a case describing a patient who manifested this clinical entity. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient was a 63-year-old man with a DAVF in the left transverse sigmoid sinus with retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage. He experienced slowly progressive disorientation lasting for several months. Preoperative single-photon emission computed tomography with (123)I-labeled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine revealed an area of hyperintensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that coincided with the hypoperfusion area; it was not increased after acetazolamide challenge. Complete DAVF obliteration was achieved by embolization, then sinus isolation. After treatment, he experienced frequent generalized convulsions that were terminated by 2-day barbiturate therapy. INTERVENTION: On T2-weighted MRI scans obtained 3 days after surgery, the hyperintense area not only persisted but had expanded to the left parietal lobe. Moreover, a subcortical hyperintense lesion was recognized on T1-weighted MRI scans; this was considered to reflect cortical laminar necrosis. Single-photon emission computed tomography revealed hyperperfusion in the left parietal lobe; it changed to hypoperfusion a month after treatment. CONCLUSION: In patients with DAVFs with preoperative findings of marked low perfusion and a poor perfusion reserve, postoperative study may reveal hyperperfusion on single-photon emission computed tomography or cortical laminar necrosis on MRI. This may be evidence of severe perfusion disturbance as a result of venous infarction. In these patients, careful blood pressure control and early treatment of seizures are important after DAVF treatment.
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