Cases reported "Cerebrovascular Disorders"

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1/1702. Biofeedback training to overcome poststroke foot-drop.

    The technique has exciting potential for elderly hemiplegic patients, even those who are confined to a nursing home. There are limiting factors, of course; the method is time-consuming and the initial outlay for equipment is high. But the rewards can be well worth the time, effort, and cost involved. The recovery potential of some geriatric patients after a cerebrovascular accident may seem bleak because of multiple disabilities, e.g., paralysis, delayed reflexes, aphasia. Fortunately, these disorders do not necessarily decree failure of biofeedback training. Neither does advanced age. The strongest component in success is motivation. A case in point is the 82 year old woman described here who had been hemiparetic for seven years. With biofeedback training, she gained--and maintained--muscle strength. ( info)

2/1702. stroke and seizures as the presenting signs of pediatric hiv infection.

    The authors report two pediatric patients with definite human immunodeficiency virus infection whose initial presentation was stroke and seizure. The first patient was a 3-year-old female who developed acute hemiparesis as the first manifestation. The other, a 2-month-old infant, had focal seizures secondary to cerebral infarction. Investigations revealed ischemic infarction of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and internal capsule in the first patient and cerebral cortex in the second. Further investigations failed to demonstrate any other causes of these cerebral infarctions. Opportunistic infection of the central nervous system was not documented. The authors emphasize that cerebrovascular accident may be the initial presentation in human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Human immunodeficiency virus infection must be included in the differential diagnosis, and testing for the disease is mandatory in the investigation of stroke in any child who is at risk of having this infection. ( info)

3/1702. Intra-arterial rtPA treatment of stroke assessed by diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI.

    BACKGROUND: diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) are new techniques that can be used for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke. However, their potential role in the management of patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) has yet to be determined. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors present the case of a 73-year-old man who was treated with intra-arterial rtPA, and they compare findings on DWI and PWI scans with angiography. PWI revealed decreased cerebral perfusion corresponding to an area that was not successfully recanalized, but revealed no abnormality in regions in which blood flow was restored. DWI was unremarkable in the region that was reperfused early (3 hours) but revealed hyperintensity in an area that was reperfused 3. 5 hours after symptom onset and in the area that was not reperfused. CONCLUSIONS: Findings on PWI correlated well with angiography, and DWI detected injured tissue in the hyperacute stage, whereas conventional MRI findings were negative. This suggests that these techniques may be useful to noninvasively evaluate the success of thrombolytic therapy. ( info)

4/1702. Spatz-Lindenberg disease: a rare cause of vascular dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Isolated cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans (Spatz-Lindenberg disease) is not well recognized as a cause of vascular dementia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old woman presented with dementia and pyramidal signs. neuroimaging showed multiple areas of white matter change. brain biopsy showed intimal thickening of the walls of leptomeningeal and intraparenchymal arteries, almost to complete occlusion, with an intact internal elastic lamina and media and without inflammation or infiltration. The cortex showed only moderate gliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Spatz-Lindenberg disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia. Additional studies of its pathogenesis are required to determine appropriate treatment. ( info)

5/1702. Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

    PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. methods: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies. ( info)

6/1702. Selective horizontal dysmetropsia following prestriate lesion.

    We describe a patient (P.S.) who, following a right prestriate lesion, reported that objects in the left visual field appeared distorted and smaller than those on the right. Other aspects of visual processing were remarkably unaffected. We carried out a series of size comparison tests using simple or complex stimuli and requiring different types of behavioural responses. We found that P.S. significantly underestimated the size of stimuli presented in her left visual field. When comparison tasks involved stimuli placed along the vertical axis or in the right visual field, P.S. performed well. The vertical and horizontal components of size distortion were found to be differentially affected. We conclude that size processing may be dissociated from other aspects of visual processing, such as form or colour processing, and depends critically on part of the occipital, prestriate areas (Brodmann areas 18-19). ( info)

7/1702. stroke-like episodes in autosomal recessive cytochrome oxidase deficiency.

    stroke-like episodes, defined as periods of acute localized neurological dysfunction during which brain imagery suggests cerebral ischemia but vascular anatomy is normal, occurred in 3 patients with autosomal recessive Saguenay-Lac St-Jean (SLSJ) cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency. The patients developed focal neurological deterioration and frontal hypodensities on cerebral computerized tomography (CT). Arteriography, performed in 1 patient during an acute episode, showed normal vascular anatomy. Nevertheless, capillary shunting was evident both in regions that appeared abnormal on the initial cerebral CT study and in regions that appeared normal but subsequently developed leigh disease. stroke-like episodes did not exacerbate systemic acidosis, and acidotic decompensations occurred independently of stroke-like episodes. In conclusion, stroke-like episodes occur in autosomal recessively inherited congenital lactic acidoses as well as in those caused by mitochondrial dna mutations. In some cases, acute localized neurovascular changes occur in regions that subsequently develop Leigh disease. ( info)

8/1702. Sudden recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis due to apoplexy of parathyroid adenoma.

    Neoplastic lesions of the parathyroid are rare, and most of these are adenomas. Even rarer is a secondary involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. A case is presented of sudden onset hoarseness in a 64-year-old man caused by acute vocal cord paralysis due to bleeding within an adenoma of the lower right parathyroid gland. Acute onset of vocal cord paralysis is rarely associated with benign processes; the current case is only the second report associated with parathyroid adenoma. ( info)

9/1702. Vascular changes in tuberculous meningoencephalitis.

    Our report refers two cases of tuberculous encephalomeningitis which differ in the course and pathological changes. In case 1 blood vessels showed features of peri, endo-, or panvasculites. In some vessels endothelium proliferation leading to the stenosis or obliteration of the vascular lumen was observed. necrosis was an effect of vessels occlusion. In case 2 many fewer vessel were involved in onflammation process. Vascular changes were also less extensive and were observed more rarely. Tuberculous infection often caused less tissue lesions than vascular changes. Different pathological changes probably depend on the type and virulence of Myobacterium tuberculosis and on the host immune response to the infection. ( info)

10/1702. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following cervical spine trauma--case report.

    A 41-year-old female presented with a rare case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following C5-6 cervical spine subluxation after a fall of 30 feet. Digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Unlocking of the facet joint, posterior wiring with iliac crest grafting, and anterior fusion were performed. The patient died on the 3rd day after the operation. This type of injury has a grim prognosis with less than a third of the patients achieving a good outcome. ( info)
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