Cases reported "Cerebrovascular Trauma"

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1/4. Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery--case report.

    A 20-year-old male presented with traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage after being involved in a fight. Antemortem clinical examinations could not exclude the possibility of rupture of abnormal blood vessels because of the absence of external injuries. Careful postmortem examination of the head and neck regions and histological examination of the intracranial arteries demonstrated traumatic rupture of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery due to a fist blow to the jaw. This case indicates the need for careful autopsy examination for the differentiation of traumatic and non-traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhages. ( info)

2/4. Intraoperative angiography to prevent vertebral artery injury during reduction of a dislocated hangman fracture. Case report.

    The authors report on a 38-year-old woman with a dislocated hangman fracture associated with unilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion. The patient presented with a mild central cord syndrome, as well as anterior subluxation of the C-2 vertebral body upon C-3, bilateral neural arch fractures, and a unilateral locked facet joint. Digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the right VA, with the posterior cerebral circulation entirely dependent on the left VA. Intraoperative angiography demonstrated that complete reduction of the dislocation would have caused severe stenosis of the left VA; partial reduction and anterior fixation were performed instead, with excellent neurological outcome. In this case, intraoperative angiography was particularly useful for preventing brain-related ischemic complications during reduction. ( info)

3/4. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery treated with endovascular coil embolization: case report.

    BACKGROUND: High-flow intracranial arteriovenous (AV) fistulas associated with giant varices are rare lesions. These varices can present with symptoms from mass effect, spontaneous hemorrhage, and seizures to cardiac failure. Direct AV fistulas of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica) are extremely rare lesions, with only two cases reported in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors present an unusual case of a 25-year-old male with a direct AV fistula of the pica that resulted from a fracture of the occipital condyle. This high-flow AV fistula drained into a giant varix of the vein of the lateral recess that compressed the brainstem, resulting in a Wallenberg syndrome. The patient underwent embolization of the proximal pica feeding the fistula with a Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC), which resulted in thrombosis of the varix. A postembolization angiogram showed occlusion of the pica AV fistula and draining varix. A computed tomography (CT) scan performed at a 10-month follow-up visit showed dramatic decompression of the brainstem. Although the patient continued to have some sensory changes secondary to Wallenberg syndrome, he was otherwise doing well neurologically. CONCLUSION: The treatment of this lesion is difficult because of its location near the brainstem. Postocclusion edema or hemorrhage can result in mass effect and life-threatening brainstem compression. Our patient, whose AV fistula was caused by trauma, was treated effectively with GDC embolization. ( info)

4/4. The clinical spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury.

    BACKGROUND: incidence, prevalence, and clinical impact of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) are unknown. There are no standardized recommendations for screening. review SUMMARY: A databank of 306 patients with a history of trauma was searched for all subjects with a proven or suspected concomitant BCVI. All patients had undergone MRI for the evaluation of traumatic and vascular cerebral lesions. The diagnosis of BCVI relies on angiographic and/or ultrasound findings. By way of illustration, the case histories of the patients are reported. Eleven subjects (3.6%) were identified. In 8 patients (2.6%), the diagnosis of BCVI can be regarded as proven; in 3 patients (0.98%), a diagnosis of BCVI is probable. The patients could be sorted into the following categories: (i) patients with BCVI and early strokes, (ii) patients with BCVI and late strokes, (iii) patients with early strokes and no detectable BCVI/vessel abnormality, (iv) patients with occult BCVI. Evidence of cerebral ischemia/stroke was present in 9 patients (82%, or 2.9% of all patients). In all patients with stroke, it was the major or sole cause of disability. CONCLUSIONS: BCVI and BCVI-related strokes are not rare. The time window for the development of ischemic complications is highly variable and may be longer than is currently assumed. Even if clinically silent, a diagnosis of BCVI has medicolegal implications and may influence therapy and prognosis in later life. Because of the association of BCVI and motor vehicle accidents, screening is suggested in these patients, and ultrasound could be a practical tool. Although there is substantial suspicion for BCVI in individual trauma patients suffering from stroke, the diagnosis cannot always been proven. ( info)

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