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1/3. Double cervix with bilateral and synchronous HSIL associated with different high-risk HPV types. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of the cervix is well known to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HSIL and invasive carcinomas occurring synchronously in genital malformations, such as a double cervix, have been reported. It has been postulated that the field effect phenomenon of HPV infection is responsible for this synchronous infection. However, there is no information in the literature on the specific types of HPV causing the concomitant lesions in cases with a double cervix. CASE: A 33-year-old nulligravida with a double cervix and a single uterine corpus was diagnosed with bilateral HSIL on Papanicolaou-stained ThinPrep slides (Cytyc Corp., Boxborough, massachusetts, U.S.A.). A bilateral loop electrosurgical excision procedure cone biopsy revealed HSIL involving both cervices. dna extracted from the HSIL lesions was analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the presence of HPV. High-risk HPV type 33 was identified in the right cervix, while HPV type 35 was present in the left. CONCLUSION: Demonstration of high-risk HPV types bilaterally supported the etiologic role of HPV infection in the synchronous and bilateral occurrence of HSIL in this case of a double cervix. The HPV types were different in the right and left cervices.
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2/3. Adverse effect of electrosurgical loop excision on assignment of FIGO stage in cervical cancer: report of two cases.

    Electrosurgical loop conization of the cervix is a new procedure that is being rapidly accepted for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Concerns include fragmentation of the specimen that is frequently mandated by the size of the transformation zone and difficulty in using the largest electrosurgical loops. Two cases are presented that demonstrate the inability to accurately assign depth of invasion in cervical cancer when the focus of invasion is transfected. As a result, the patient and physician were forced to decide on whether a radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were needed based on incomplete information. It is recommended that electrosurgical loop conization be confined to patients where invasive carcinoma is not expected. The use of this new technique for patients with suspected invasive carcinoma needs further evaluation.
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3/3. Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix: a potential pitfall in cervicovaginal cytology.

    Adenoid basal carcinoma (ABC) of the cervix is a quite uncommon, indolent, yet invasive neoplasm rarely identified on cervicovaginal smears. This may be due in part to sampling. Unless ABCs become ulcerated, even vigorous brushing of the endocervical canal may not be adequate to dislodge the small, cohesive cells of this neoplasm. Fortunately, the association of ABC with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) often results in its incidental diagnosis on follow-up cervical biopsy or endocervical curettage. We report two cases of ABC. In case 1, a 79-yr-old white woman was diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma on cervicovaginal (CV) smear. High-grade SIL, carcinoma in situ, and ABC were identified on subsequent cervical cone biopsy and hysterectomy. Retrospective evaluation of the CV smear revealed a few aggregates of small, uniform cells, with hyperchromatic nuclei representing fragments of ABC. In case 2, atypical basaloid cells suspicious for ABC were recognized on the CV smear of a 67-yr-old black woman, and ABC was subsequently confirmed on cervical cone biopsy. In neither case did the intervening cervical biopsy reveal ABC. In addition to a review of the clinical information useful in the diagnosis of ABC, the cytologic features of these two cases are compared with their subsequent histopathology and contrasted with other similar lesions comprising the differential diagnosis of small neoplastic cells found in cervicovaginal smears.
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