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1/70. hematometra and extended vaginal haematoma after laser conization. A case report.

    A very rare case of haematometra and extended vaginal haematoma in a 53-year-old woman after laser conization is reported. The patient presented with amenorrhea and complete urinary retention. The possible pathogenesis of this complication is discussed. ultrasonography, combined with physical examination were very helpful in determining the diagnosis. Cervical dilation and protection of surrounding tissues from thermal damage is recommended during laser conization to avoid similar complications. ( info)

2/70. Cervical adenoid cystic carcinoma coexisting with multiple human papillomavirus-associated genital lesions. A common etiology?

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare tumor with unknown etiology. We report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma occurring in a young woman, associated with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV)-related lesions including condyloma acuminata, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasm, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. While adenoid cystic carcinoma has previously been found to coexist with squamous cell carcinoma or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, its association with such a variety of HPV-related lesions in our case has not been previously reported, and raises the speculation that HPV may also be the causative factor for adenoid cystic carcinoma. However, in situ dna hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in our current study failed to demonstrate the existence of HPV dna in adenoid cystic carcinoma. ( info)

3/70. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a report of a case with coexisting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and human papillomavirus 16.

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), one of the four newly categorised endocrine tumors of the uterine cervix, are unusual and aggressive tumors. The present report describes a case of LCNEC diagnosed at an early stage and associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The LCNEC showed organoid and trabecular growth patterns and was positive for chromogranin and synaptophysin. The CIN lesion was of a high grade and was negative for these neuroendocrine markers. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic dna extracted from archival tissue demonstrated human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 dna in both the LCNEC and CIN lesions. These histological, immunohistochemical and PCR findings suggested that the LCNEC lesion was distinct from the CIN lesion and that both resulted from the carcinogenic field effect of HPV 16. ( info)

4/70. Malignant lymphoma of the cervix. An unusual presentation and a rare disease.

    Malignant lymphomas arising in the uterus are uncommon and are more commonly seen in the cervix than the corpus. Involvement of the cervix as part of a systemic lymphoma is more common than primary lymphoma, but the cervix as the site of presentation is unusual. We report two cases of malignant lymphoma of the cervix. The first patient, a 52-year-old woman, was referred to colposcopy following persistent low grade dyskaryosis on cervical cytology. At colposcopy a Lletz biopsy was performed and a diagnosis of CIN 1 and focal CIN 2 was made. In addition the subepithelial zone revealed a non-Hodgkin's (NHL) B-cell follicular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently staged as NHL Stage 3E. The second patient, a 35-year-old woman, was referred to the gynaecology department with a history of abnormal vaginal bleeding and two abnormal smears. Subsequent cervical biopsy revealed a high grade, large cell, malignant lymphoma, diffuse, B-cell. The patient was staged as Stage IE. Primary lymphoma of the uterine cervix as illustrated in the second case is very unusual. One case had negative cytology and one case had abnormal cells of uncertain origin. This highlights the difficulty of diagnosing cervical lymphoma, a rare but treatable malignancy, on cytology and suggests that cervical biopsy is needed for the confirmation of the diagnosis. ( info)

5/70. Anogenital intraepithelial lesions in hiv positive patients. Report of 3 cases with 3-year follow-up.

    Three cases of hiv-positive immunocompromised women, complicated by anogenital intraepithelial lesions are presented in the present paper. Two patients, aged 42 and 33, had a combination of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (AIN 2). The other one, aged 26, presented an association of CIN 2 and AIN 1. All lesions were HPV-associated and proved by colposcopically-guided biopsies. ( info)

6/70. Treatment of vaginal dysplasia: just a simple loop electrosurgical excision procedure?

    We report a case of sigmoid perforation, peritonitis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome after a loop excision procedure for carcinoma in situ of the cervix and dysplasia of the vagina. Treatment of vaginal dysplasia with loop excision is potentially dangerous. Safer methods of management include carbon dioxide laser, topical 5-fluorouracil, and fulguration. ( info)

7/70. Human papillomavirus infection in atrophic smears. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in atrophic smears can be misleading and may produce the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. CASE: A routine cervical smear in a 62-year-old female revealed an atrophic smear with nuclear changes suggestive of a high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). An estrogen cream for topical vaginal use was prescribed. A new smear was collected seven days later and revealed koilocytosis but no evidence of HSIL. CONCLUSION: Koilocytosis is a cellular finding of mature epithelial cells. The use of estrogen produces maturation of HPV-infected basal cells, allowing a correct diagnosis of this disease in patients with atrophic smears. ( info)

8/70. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) III of the uterine cervix in a young female associated with AIDS.

    A case of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III implying severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix in a 24 year old Japanese female patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. autopsy revealed marked systemic atrophy of lymph nodes, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary aspergillosis, acute pancreatitis and CIN III of the portio vaginalis uteri. The human papillomavirus (HPV) genome was detected in sections of the CIN III by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first autopsy report of cervical neoplasia in a patient with AIDS in japan, and the pathogenesis of CIN III in this case was associated with HPV infection. gynecological examination should be mandatory for female patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. ( info)

9/70. Bilateral radical radiotherapy in a patient with uterus didelphys.

    We report a case of congenital abnormality of uterus didelyphys in a patient who developed invasive carcinoma of the cervix. She received radical radiotherapy by a combination of external beam pelvic radiotherapy and high dose rate brachytherapy by insertion of afterloading catheters into both uterine canals. A newly defined prescription point was used midway between the two catheters and 2 cm above the mean cervical os position. The classical point A was regarded as inappropriate in this patient with a rare condition. Acute toxicity was minor and the patient is tumour free with no significant normal tissue late effects after follow-up of nearly 3 years. ( info)

10/70. Cervicovaginal psammoma bodies in endosalpingiosis. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: The presence of psammoma bodies on cervicovaginal smears is a rare finding. These structures have usually been associated with malignant tumors, particularly ovarian carcinoma. However, a review of the literature reveals that up to 50% of these patients will have psammoma bodies in association with benign conditions; thus, this finding does not always correlate with the presence of a malignant tumor. CASE: An asymptomatic, nulliparous woman had psammoma bodies on a cervicovaginal smear. Evaluation, including cervical conization, endometrial sampling, laparoscopy with pelvic washings and ovarian biopsy, revealed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, endosalpingiosis and numerous psammoma bodies in all specimens except from the cervix. Follow-up examinations at three and six months were negative. CONCLUSION: The finding of psammoma bodies in a Pap smear is not always associated with the presence of a pelvic malignancy. ( info)
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