Cases reported "Chagas Disease"

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1/11. prevalence of American trypanosomiasis (chagas disease) among dogs in oklahoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of trypanosoma cruzi infection among dogs in oklahoma. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. animals: 301 owned or impounded dogs related by ownership or general geographic location to 3 dogs determined to have trypanosomiasis. PROCEDURES: Blood samples were obtained from dogs between November 1996 and September 1997. infection status was determined by use of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay. Second blood samples were obtained from some of the seropositive dogs for study by hemoculture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Sites where infected dogs were found were inspected for triatomine insects, and light traps were used for vector trapping. RESULTS: 11(3.6%) dogs were seropositive for T. cruzi infection. Ten of the 11 were owned rural hunting dogs. Protozoal organisms isolated from the blood of 1 seropositive dog were identified as T. cruzi by PCR testing. Only 1 adult triatoma sanguisuga was captured in a light trap at a site near infected dogs; this insect was not infected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our findings suggest that T. cruzi is enzootic in eastern oklahoma. Measures that would reduce the risk of dogs acquiring T. cruzi infection are unlikely to be acceptable to their owners, and no effective drugs are available for treatment. The presence of T. cruzi-infected dogs poses a threat of transmission to persons at risk of exposure to contaminated blood veterinarians who practice in the southern united states should be cognizant of this blood borne zoonosis and educate all personnel about appropriate precautions.
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2/11. Chagasic megaesophagus and megacolon diagnosed in childhood and probably caused by vertical transmission.

    Reports on children presenting symptoms compatible with the chronic phase of chagas disease are sporadic. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy who had megaesophagus and megacolon, both of them a consequence of the trypanosomiasis. The etiology was established by means of laboratory and histological features. Based on epidemiological data, the authors concluded that vertical transmission was the most probable route of acquisition. This diagnosis should be considered in children presenting similar complaints, even those living away from endemic areas.
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keywords = trypanosomiasis
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3/11. chagas disease after organ transplantation--united states, 2001.

    chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasite trypanosoma cruzi. chagas disease following solid-organ transplantation has occurred in latin america, where chagas disease is endemic, but has not been reported previously in the united states. This report describes three cases in the united states of T cruzi infection associated with transplantation of organs from a single donor. CDC and the U.S. organ transplantation organizations will consider whether to recommend screening of potential donors for T cruzi infection and, if so, which donors to screen, how to screen, and what to do if the screening tests are positive.
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keywords = trypanosomiasis
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4/11. Exacerbation of hiv viral load simultaneous with asymptomatic reactivation of chronic Chagas' disease.

    Chronic trypanosoma cruzi infection can reactivate in patients with immunosuppression related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, resulting in severe meningoencephalitis or myocarditis and high parasitemia. The effects of T. cruzi on hiv infection are unknown. We describe an hiv-infected patient with chronic Chagas' disease who experienced an asymptomatic T. cruzi reactivation characterized by the finding of the parasite in direct microscopic examination of blood. The patient's hiv viral load had increased simultaneously with the exacerbation of T. cruzi parasitemia and decreased to previous levels after successful antiparasitic treatment. This otherwise unexplained finding suggests that T. cruzi infection might up-regulate hiv replication, which may affect hiv disease progression. Asymptomatic reactivation of Chagas' disease has not been reported before. This could mean that the severe clinical manifestations related to the reactivation of trypanosomiasis are just the tip of the iceberg.
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keywords = trypanosomiasis
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5/11. prenatal diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis).

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital transmission of Chagas' disease in a pregnant woman with the indeterminate form of the disease is reported. Sonography revealed fetal hydrops at 31 weeks' gestation. Anti-trypanosoma cruzi IgM and IgG antibodies were negative in the fetal blood sampled by cordocentesis, but T. cruzi trypomastigotes were found in its buffy coat. Owing to anemia, in utero exchange transfusion was undertaken, but fetal demise ensued. Labor was induced and a stillborn infant weighing 2030 g was delivered. The pathological examination revealed placentitis and meningoencephalitis, myocarditis and splenitis in the stillborn fetus. Amastigotes were found in the myocardium, brain and placenta.
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keywords = trypanosomiasis
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6/11. Concurrent cerebral american trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS.

    We report a case of concurrent cerebral infection with trypanosoma cruzi and toxoplasma gondii in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A 22-year-old El Salvadoran man initially improved during receipt of antitoxoplasmosis therapy, but he had rapidly progressive hemiplegia. magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal finding in the left internal capsule, and cytological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Despite prompt therapy with nifurtimox, the patient's mental status declined, and he died of nosocomial complications. Although infrequent, T. cruzi infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain lesions in patients with AIDS from regions of endemicity.
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keywords = trypanosomiasis
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7/11. Acute Chagas' disease in a recipient of a bone marrow transplant in spain: case report.

    Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a very uncommon disease in non-endemic areas. A few cases in immunosuppressed patients have been reported in America. This report describes, to our knowledge, the first fatal case of acute Chagas' disease in europe following bone marrow transplantation.
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keywords = trypanosomiasis
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8/11. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) in a Canadian immigrant infant.

    A case of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) is reported. A 13-month-old Mennonite girl who immigrated to canada from paraguay, died at the Children's Centre in Winnipeg from an acute myocarditis due to infection with trypanosoma cruzi. This diagnosis should be considered when a patient from an endemic area presents with a clinical picture of myocarditis.
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9/11. Successful treatment of trypanosoma cruzi encephalitis in a patient with hemophilia and AIDS.

    Although the frequency of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is increasing dramatically in areas where trypanosoma cruzi is endemic, trypanosomiasis has been rarely reported in persons with hiv infection or AIDS. persons with hemophilia who receive multiple blood product transfusions from blood banks with little or no screening for infectious agents are at particularly high risk for infections with both hiv and T. cruzi. We describe the case of a person with hemophilia who was infected by blood transfusion with hiv and T. cruzi and in whom a multifocal, necrotic trypanosomal encephalitis was demonstrated by brain biopsy and electron microscopy. Treatment with benznidazole followed by that with itraconazole and fluconazole was associated with significant clinical and radiographic improvement.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = trypanosomiasis
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10/11. Chagasic granulomatous encephalitis in immunosuppressed patients. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), a zoonosis caused by trypanosoma cruzi with a high incidence in latin america, may induce an uncommon form of localized encephalitis termed "chagoma", found in few immunocompromised patients. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of brain chagoma are reported for 3 males (ages 32, 32 and 9 yr), the first 2 infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and the third with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. CT disclosed a single, supratentorial, nodular-shaped lesion that substantially enhanced with contrast material, localized in parietal or frontal lobes. T1-weighted MRI showed hypointense lesions that enhanced with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, corresponding to extensive hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images, producing mass effect. The imaging pattern of brain chagoma presented here is similar to that of cerebral toxoplasmosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intracerebral mass lesion in immunocompromised patients.
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