Cases reported "Chest Pain"

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1/16. Dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus.

    The largest series of patients (n = 10) with dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus is described. The typical features, chest pain with odynophagia or dysphagia and minor haematemesis are usually present but not always elicited at presentation. If elicited, these symptoms should suggest the diagnosis and avoid mistaken attribution to a cardiac origin for the pain. precipitating factors such as a forced Valsalva manoeuvre cannot be identified in at least half the cases. Early endoscopy is safe, and confirms the diagnosis when an haematoma within the oesophageal wall or the later appearances of a longitudinal ulcer are seen. Dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus has an excellent prognosis when managed conservatively.
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2/16. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in an 18-year-old black Sudanese high school student.

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is defined as pneumomediastinum in the absence of an underlying lung disease. It is the second most common cause of chest pain in young, healthy individuals (< 30 years) necessitating hospital visits. It is surpassed in frequency in this setting only by spontaneous pneumothorax. These two conditions may coexist in 18% of patients. The incidence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum varies in different communities and generally is relatively uncommon. Inhalational drug use (cocaine and cannabis) have been associated with a significant number of cases, although cases with no apparent etiologic or incriminating factors are well recognized. Also its recurrence, though uncommon, is worthy of note. It is a benign clinical condition with diverse clinical presentations. physicians' knowledge of the presentation, treatment, and prognosis of SPM will guard against the need for expensive radiologic and laboratory tests. The differential diagnosis of chest pain, shortness of breath, and dysphagia include cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal diseases. The tendency to pursue these entities may lead to laboratory investigations such as electrocardiograms, arterial blood gases, ventilation/perfusion scans, and contrast radiographic studies of the esophagus.
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3/16. candy cocaine esophagus.

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus from drinking boiling-hot liquids has been reported to produce alternating pink and white linear bands that impart a "candy-cane" appearance to the inner esophageal wall. This injury has been associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and abdominal pain. We describe a case of candy-cane esophagus caused by thermal injury from smoking freebase cocaine, associated with left shoulder and arm pain, diaphoresis, hypotension, and transient cardiac ischemia. This case illustrates the importance of considering candy cane esophagus in the evaluation of chest pain, even when this symptom is suspected to be of cardiac origin.
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4/16. Perforation of the oesophagus and aorta after eating fish: an unusual cause of chest pain.

    This report describes perforation of the oesophagus after eating fish complicated by perforation of the aorta six days later. The patient had not knowingly swallowed a fish bone. Aorto-oesophageal fistula is almost universally fatal. In the case described here, the fistula was demonstrated on contrast computed tomography before surgery, thus informing surgical management. The patient is the eighth reported survivor.
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5/16. doxycycline-induced pill esophagitis.

    Pill-induced esophagitis is a complication seen in patients who use certain medications such as tetracycline and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this short report, we described five cases of doxycycline-induced esophagitis with endoscopic images. All of the patients were young or middle-aged women. Dysphagia or odynophagia with retrosternal pain were the main presenting symptoms in all cases. The observed injuries were at the middle third of esophagus with a normal surrounding mucosa. All patients had a history of swallowing the capsule with a small amount of water or in a recumbent position. Two patients with dysphagia were managed by intravenous fluid support and parenteral acid suppression. The symptoms were improved in 2-7 days after the ceasing of the drug and control endoscopies were completely normal in all cases after 3-4 weeks of admission. The drug-induced esophagitis is not rare with certain drugs and should be suspected in all patients presenting with chest pain and dysphagia. physicians must warn the patients to take the pills and capsules with enough liquid and in the upright position.
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6/16. IgD myeloma with systemic amyloidosis with chest discomfort as an initial symptom.

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to Keio University Hospital because of serious dyspnea and edema of the lower extremities. Eighteen months previously, the patient had complained of chest discomfort, and was then admitted for the first time to our hospital for evaluation of chest pain. electrocardiography showed poor R wave progression in leads Vl through V4, and diffuse nonspecific ST-segment and T wave abnormalities with low voltage. However, no definitive diagnosis could be made at this initial admission and a calcium-channel blocker was prescribed. Despite this treatment, the patient was readmitted with worsening dyspnea and lower extremity edema. The diagnosis of heart failure and nephritic syndrome was made at the second admission. In addition, immunoelectrophoresis showed a monoclonal IgD (lambda) M protein and increased plasma cells in the bone marrow, suggesting a diagnosis of multiple myeloma. The patient was thus given dexamethasone (20 mg per day for 4 days) intravenously, but his symptoms did not improve. Two weeks later, the patient deteriorated further with congestive heart failure and renal failure, and subsequently died of cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation. On autopsy, IgD (lambda)-positive plasma cell proliferation was found in the bone marrow, confirming the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. In addition, amyloid deposition was detected in various organs including the heart, kidneys, esophagus, duodenum, ileum, colon, tongue, and lungs. In particular, the weight of the heart was 650 g demonstrating a hypertrophic septum and amyloid deposition in the myocardium and even coronary arteries. In summary, the final diagnosis was IgD (lambda) multiple myeloma associated with systemic amyloidosis.
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7/16. Dissecting intramural hematoma in esophageal carcinoma.

    A 50-year-old man with esophageal carcinoma developed severe, refractory, retrosternal chest pain. The diagnosis was made four days later when contrast studies showed an intramural dissecting hematoma of the esophagus. The patient responded to conservative management.
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8/16. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis complicated by pneumomediastinum.

    We report a rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with perforation of the esophagus. A 32-year-old male presented with acute thoracal pain after a period of vomiting. Computed tomography revealed an important amount of mediastinal free air and small outpouchings in the wall of the esophagus. During the following thoracic surgery procedure no macroscopic site of rupture could be identified. Pseudodiverticulosis was detected during a barium swallow exam of the esophagus 4 weeks later.
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9/16. Tortuous aorta--a new cause for esophageal chest pain?

    Three patients (average age 61 years) presenting with retrosternal pain were evaluated with barium studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In each case, the esophagus was significantly displaced by a tortuous aorta. All patients had sliding hiatal hernias; these hiatal hernias, and the esophagitis and disordered motility seen in our patients, could be a consequence of esophageal displacement by the tortuous aorta. Two patients were relieved symptomatically with antacids and metoclopramide. Thus, tortuosity of the thoracic aorta can cause esophageal chest pain.
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10/16. Esophageal chest pain.

    Recurrent chest pain frequently results in significant disability and anxiety, even after cardiac disease has been excluded. A stepwise approach is recommended for the diagnosis of pulmonary conditions, musculoskeletal disorders and structural problems of the upper gastrointestinal tract that can produce chest pain. If a search for these disorders proves negative, an esophageal source of chest pain should be strongly suspected. Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common and easily treated cause of esophageal chest pain, esophageal motility disorders should also be considered. Motility disorders include achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and nonspecific motility disorders.
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