Cases reported "Chickenpox"

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1/173. prenatal diagnosis of congenital varicella syndrome and detection of varicella-zoster virus in the fetus: a case report.

    Varicella syndrome (VS) specific malformations were sonographically seen at 22 weeks and 3 days of gestation. Fetal infection was demonstrated by detection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) dna in fetal blood and amniotic fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following therapeutic abortion, fetal infection was confirmed by detection of VZV dna in several fetal tissues and placenta, and by histopathological findings like miliary calcified necroses in fetal organs.
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2/173. Acute generalized varicella zoster in the setting of preexisting generalized erythema.

    We report a 5-year-old girl who initially had generalized erythema from scarlet fever. Four days later she developed sheets of monomorphous vesicles in the areas of erythema. A Tzanck smear of a vesicle base showed multinucleated giant cells, and viral culture grew varicella zoster virus, confirming a clinical diagnosis of varicella. This case illustrates that, with a background of preexisting erythema, varicella may present in an atypical manner.
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3/173. Varicella arthritis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction.

    We report a 2-year-old girl who developed acute arthritis of the left knee 4 days after the onset of a typical varicella infection. She was first thought to have pyogenic arthritis caused by staphylococcus aureus. Accordingly, oxacillin was administered upon hospitalization. On the third day after hospitalization, bacterial cultures of the synovial fluid and blood showed no growth and oxacillin was discontinued. Although a viral culture of the synovial fluid for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was negative, varicella dna was identified by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with VZV-specific primers. The patient recovered spontaneously. To differentiate this condition from septic arthritis is important. PCR is a sensitive technique that can demonstrate the presence of VZV dna in synovial fluid, even if viral cultures are negative.
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4/173. Bilateral sequential facial palsy during chickenpox.

    Facial palsy is a rare neurological complication of chickenpox. A 5-year-old girl exhibited a right facial palsy followed by the appearance of the characteristic chicken pox exanthem. Subsequently she suffered a left facial palsy. In this patient both pathophysiological mechanisms responsible and their relation to the phase of infection are illustrated. CONCLUSION: Facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox can result from pre-eruptive haematogenous or neurogenous spread of varicella-zoster virus.
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5/173. Varicella complicated by group A streptococcal sepsis and osteonecrosis.

    A 5-year-old boy presented with primary varicella zoster virus infection, group A streptococcal sepsis, toxic shock, and multisite osteonecrosis. An association between osteonecrosis and group A streptococcal sepsis has not been previously reported. Clinical recognition with supportive radiologic and pathologic findings are presented. Therapeutic guidelines are suggested.
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6/173. Transmission of varicella to a gravida via close contacts immunized with varicella-zoster vaccine. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Varicella-zoster is a highly contagious dna virus, transmitted by direct contact and respiratory droplets. An attenuated live-virus vaccine has recently become available and is of value for susceptible, nonimmunized people. As with other attenuated vaccines, such as measles, mumps and rubella virus, there is no evidence of transmission by those immunized, and it is generally recognized that these vaccines can be given to the close contacts of pregnant women. CASE: A 32-year-old woman at 39 weeks of gestation presented with generalized pruritic vesicles and pustules. Diagnosis of primary varicella infection was made and confirmed by serologic studies. The patient denied recent or past exposure. The only significant history that the patient could recall was her exposure to her two children, who were vaccinated with the varicella-zoster vaccine eight days prior to her admission but were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a pregnant woman contracting the primary varicella infection from exposure to close contacts vaccinated with the varicella vaccine. It may not be as safe as previously thought for seronegative gravidas to be in close contact with people vaccinated with the varicella vaccine.
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keywords = virus, measles
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7/173. Benign cephalic histiocytosis progressing into juvenile xanthogranuloma: a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis transforming under the influence of a virus?

    Benign cephalic histiocytosis (BCH) is best understood as a form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, specifically as an early mononuclear variant of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). However, the progression of BCH into JXG in the same patient has only been reported once before. We describe the case of a 2-year-old girl with asymptomatic, large, ill-defined infiltrated flat plaques over both cheeks, in addition to isolated papules. A punch biopsy of a plaque revealed dermal infiltration by vacuolated and scalloped histiocytes positive for CD68 KP-1, and that lacked expression of CD1a and S-100 protein, favoring macrophages over langerhans cells. Electron microscopy study showed comma-shaped intracytoplasmic bodies in the histiocytic cells leading to the diagnosis of BCH. One year later, after an episode of varicella-zoster infection, the flat plaques over the cheeks became large reddish-yellow nodules, and in a second biopsy appeared to progress to JXG. Virus-related mechanisms of progression are discussed.
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8/173. Varicella pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome in an adult.

    Primary varicella infection is uncommon in adults, but carries a higher rate of morbidity and mortality than in children. pneumonia is the most common complication of primary varicella infection in adults. However, varicella pneumonia complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very rare. We report a case of ARDS secondary to varicella pneumonia in a 26-year-old man with primary varicella. The patient was otherwise healthy and had no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The initial chest radiograph showed bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates, which quickly evolved to diffuse alveolar consolidations. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a ratio of arterial partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen of 87. Abnormal liver function and thrombocytopenia were also noted. Treatment consisted of mechanical ventilatory support and intravenous administration of acyclovir. His pulmonary condition gradually improved and he was successfully weaned from the ventilator 1 week later. He was discharged on the 15th hospital day with a favorable outcome. His pulmonary function improved progressively, with normal spirometry and lung volumes, but persistent mild impairment of diffusing capacity, 6 months after discharge.
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9/173. Congenital varicella syndrome diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction--scarring of the spinal cord, not the skin.

    A term infant with congenital varicella syndrome (CVS) is reported. Monoplegia of the left arm and paraplegia were present with no evidence of dermatomal skin scarring. Following death at 12 days of age, autopsy documented severe atrophy and gliosis of the spinal cord. Testing for varicella-zoster virus by the polymerase chain reaction method on brain tissue was positive. This case extends the current understanding of the clinical and pathological features of CVS.
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10/173. Herpes incognito.

    Can a microscopist suspect that telltale histopathologic changes of infection by herpesvirus (varicella, zoster, or simplex) are nearby even when no diagnostic epithelial changes are present in the sections being studied? Punch-biopsy specimens from three patients are presented; in two of those cases herpesvirus infection was not even a clinical consideration. The initial histopathologic sections from these patients did not show changes of herpesvirus infection, but step sections revealed focal diagnostic changes. Atypical lymphocytes were present in each of these cases. When atypical lymphocytes are found in concert with a pattern of an inflammatory-cell infiltrate that does not conform precisely to any well-defined entity, a microscopist should consider that the findings may represent changes near infection by herpesvirus. In addition, we reviewed every case we diagnosed as herpesvirus infection over an 18-month period and found that in just over two thirds of those specimens (32 out of 45 cases), atypical lymphocytes accompanied the characteristic epithelial changes induced by herpesvirus.
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