Cases reported "Choanal Atresia"

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1/2. coloboma and other ophthalmologic anomalies in Kabuki syndrome: distinction from charge association.

    Kabuki (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome is associated with growth retardation, developmental delay, congenital heart disease, cleft palate, and characteristic facial features. Although the external appearance of the eyes has been well-described, the type and frequency of structural and functional eye anomalies has not been emphasized. We report three children with Kabuki syndrome who also had a retinal coloboma. A diagnosis of CHARGE association was initially suggested in two of the patients before the typical facial features of Kabuki syndrome emerged. A detailed review of reported cases of Kabuki syndrome shows that a variety of eye anomalies are associated with Kabuki syndrome. The incidence of coloboma is greatly increased in Kabuki syndrome. Thus, ophthalmologic abnormalities are frequently associated with Kabuki syndrome, and an ophthalmologic evaluation should be performed for each patient. Phenotypic overlap, including congenital heart, ear, and renal defects, can lead to the diagnosis of CHARGE association, especially since the typical facial features of Kabuki syndrome may not be apparent in early infancy. Thus, Kabuki syndrome should be considered in patients with coloboma if other features consistent with this condition are present, and follow-up evaluations are indicated for establishing the proper diagnosis.
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keywords = charge association
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2/2. Vestibular abnormalities in charge association.

    We report the vestibular abnormalities in 5 patients with the CHARGE association (coloboma, heart disease, Atresia of choanae, Retarded growth and development and/or central nervous system anomalies, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies). All patients had absent vestibular function as indicated by absent vestibulo-ocular reflexes and severe imbalance on simultaneous deprivation of proprioception and vision, as well as delayed motor development. All 6 semicircular canals were aplastic in each of the patients. While cochlear function was severely reduced in 6 of the 10 ears, it was absent only in 3 ears and was actually intact below 3 kHz in 1 ear. All 10 bony cochleas were present on computed tomography, and although 7 appeared abnormal, 3 appeared normal. This study confirms that absence of the bony semicircular canals in the presence of a bony cochlea is a characteristic finding in CHARGE association. It also demonstrates that these disproportionate structural abnormalities are reflected in the functional abnormalities: absent vestibular function with preservation of some cochlear function.
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keywords = charge association
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