Cases reported "Cholelithiasis"

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1/1150. Gallstone pancreatitis with normal biliary radiology.

    Three patients with relapsing gallstone pancreatitis and normal routine biliary radiology are reported and discussed. It is emphasized that when dealing with recurrent pancreatitis for which no cause is evident, normal conventional biliary radiology (oral cholecystogram and intravenous cholangiogram) should not necessarily be accepted as conclusive. The use of endoscopic cholangiography in such a situation is encouraging. ( info)

2/1150. An extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer mimicking Mirizzi's syndrome.

    We report a case of an extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer that mimicked Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. A 67-yr-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute calculous cholecystitis. As obstructive jaundice developed after the admission, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed to ameliorate the jaundice and to evaluate the biliary system. Tube cholangiography revealed bile duct obstruction at the hepatic hilus, and extrinsic compression of the lateral aspect of the common hepatic duct, with nonvisualization of the gallbladder. No impacted cystic duct stone was visualized on CT or ultrasonography. laparotomy revealed a gallbladder tumor as well as an extrahepatic bile duct tumor. We diagnosed that the latter was a metastasis from the gallbladder cancer, based on the histopathological features. This case is unique in that the extrahepatic bile duct metastasis obstructed both the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct, giving the appearance of Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. Metastatic bile duct tumors that mimic Mirizzi's syndrome have not been previously reported. The presence of this condition should be suspected in patients with the cholangiographic features of Mirizzi's syndrome, when the CT or ultrasonographic findings fail to demonstrate an impacted cystic duct stone. ( info)

3/1150. Double gallbladder originating from left hepatic duct: a case report and review of literature.

    BACKGROUND: Double gallbladder is a rare anomaly of the biliary tract. Double gallbladder arising from the left hepatic duct was previously reported only once in the literature. CASE REPORT: A case of symptomatic cholelithiasis in a double gallbladder, diagnosed on preoperative ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) is reported. At laparoscopic cholangiography via the accessory gallbladder no accessory cystic duct was visualized. After conversion to open cholecystectomy, the duplicated gallbladder was found to arise directly from the left hepatic duct; it was resected and the duct repaired. CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize that a careful intraoperative cholangiographic evaluation of the accessory gallbladder is mandatory in order to prevent inadvertent injury to bile ducts, since a large variety of ductal abnormality may exist. ( info)

4/1150. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies. ( info)

5/1150. Pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    A patient with primary hydatid cyst involving the tail of the pancreas and treated successfully by distal pancreatectomy is reported. Additionally, we performed splenectomy because the spleen was lifted on to the cyst, and cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. ( info)

6/1150. Unexpected gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an emerging problem? Reflections on four cases.

    gallbladder cancer (GC) has been reported in 0.3-1.5% of cholecystectomies. Since the introduction of laparoscopic surgery, cholecystectomies have increased and occult GC may therefore be more frequent. Herein we analyze our own experience to determine whether there was an increase in GC. We also evaluate the risk factors for this outcome. Four patients with GC undiagnosed before surgery (four of 602 cases, or 0.66%) were submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The percentage in patients who underwent open surgery was 0.28% (two of 714 cases). Without reoperation, three patients died in the laparoscopic group and one is alive at 12 months. Trocar site metastasis was not observed. Although the percentage of GC (0.28% versus 0.66%) increased, the percentage is still in the referred average. Undiagnosed GC is on the increase. Examination of the gallbladder and a frozen section, if necessary, are recommended. Calcified gallbladders, age >70 years, a long history of stones, and a thickened gallbladder all represent significant risk factors. ( info)

7/1150. Are expandable metallic stents better than conventional methods for treating difficult intrahepatic biliary strictures with recurrent hepatolithiasis?

    BACKGROUND: Conventional methods for treating patients with recurrent hepatolithiasis associated with complicated intrahepatic biliary strictures include balloon dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary strictures, lithotripsy, and the clearance of difficult stones as completely as possible, with the placement of an external-internal stent for at least 6 months. After these modalities are used, symptomatic refractory strictures remain. Recently we used internal Gianturco-Rosch metallic Z stents to treat patients who had refractory strictures. OBJECTIVE: To compare therapeutic results and complications of an internal expandable metallic Z stent with those of repeated external-internal stent placement. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: A referral center. patients: From January 1992 to December 1996, 18 patients with recurrent hepatolithiasis and complicated intrahepatic biliary strictures underwent percutaneous dilatation of stricture and transhepatic percutaneous cholangioscopic lithotomy for recurrent stones. After their stones were completely cleared, their biliary strictures failed to dilate satisfactorily. The patients were randomly enrolled into 2 groups: group A (7 patients), who received an expandable metallic Z stent, and group B (11 patients), who had repeated placement of external-internal stents. INTERVENTIONS: Percutaneous stricture dilatation, electrohydraulic lithotripsy, balloon dilatation, percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy, and biliary stenting by a Silastic external-internal catheter or a modified Gianturco-Rosch expandable metallic Z stent (for an internal stent). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of procedures, days in hospital, procedure-related complications, incidents of stone recurrence and recurrence of cholangitis, readmissions to the hospital, treatment sessions required, and mortality rate. patients' limitations in ordinary activities were also compared. RESULTS: The follow-up period ranged from 28 to 60 (40.7 /-12.7 [mean /- SD]) months in group A and from 28 to 49 (36.0 /-7.2) months in group B. Fewer group A patients (3 [43%]) than group B patients (8 [73%]) tended to have recurrent cholangitis and to require readmission to the hospital, but this was not statistically significant (P = .33). When their cumulative probability of a first episode of cholangitis during follow-up was compared, however, it was significantly lower in patients treated with a metallic stent (P = .04). Compared with group B patients, group A patients had less frequent recurrence of stones (0% vs 64%; P = .01), fewer procedures for the clearance of biliary stones or sludge (1.7 /-2.2 vs 6.4 /-4.3; P = .03), and shorter hospital stays (8.0 /-11.5 days vs 17.0 /-12.0 days; P = .07). No patients in group A experienced limitation in ordinary activities, whereas 7 patients in group B did (P<.02). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the repeated placement of external-internal stents, the use of a metallic internal stent effectively decreases stone recurrence, simplifies further procedures, and is more convenient. Its use is suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of recurrent hepatolithiasis with refractory intrahepatic biliary strictures. ( info)

8/1150. Laparolithic cholecystectomy: laboratory data and first clinical case.

    A method of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is described. After control of the cystic duct and artery, gallstones are emulsified with a laparoscopic lithotriptor and the debris aspirated from the gallbladder. The free wall of the gallbladder is excised and the remaining gallbladder mucosa ablated with holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser. This technique eliminates the need for dissection of the gallbladder from the liver, thereby reducing the possibility of hemorrhage from the gallbladder fossa. At the same time stones and bile are aspirated so that the excised portion of gallbladder can be easily removed through an access port without spillage of contaminated bilious debris into the abdominal cavity or puncture wound that could cause infection. Acute and chronic animal studies confirm the feasibility of this technique. A clinical case is described. ( info)

9/1150. Percutaneous endoscopic laser lithotripsy of a cystic duct stone: a case report.

    A case report of an elderly patient with severe heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who required laser lithotripsy for a retained cystic duct stone is presented. This high-risk patient underwent a laparoscopic cholecystostomy and gallstone removal as treatment for symptomatic gallstone disease. On cholecystography the patient was found to have a small stone fragment in the cystic duct. Under intravenous sedation this stone fragment was fragmented and removed using an 8.5F flexible ureteroscope and a coumarin pulsed-dye laser lithotriptor. The stone was fragmented and washed into the common bile duct. Follow-up cholecystogram prior to removal of the cholecystostomy tube demonstrated no stones in the gallbladder, cystic duct, or common bile duct. The management of percutaneous removal of retained stones is reviewed. ( info)

10/1150. Studies on the functional disturbances of the papillary region using a pressure sensor.

    Investigation of the duodenal papilla and the bile duct by EPCG is essential to diagnose the organic and functional disturbances of the papillary region. We have developed a pressure sensor based on a semi-conductor in order to obtain a more objective observation of pathological conditions in the papillary region. Using a duodenofiberscope, the pressure sensor was placed on the tip of canula, and it was inserted into the papilla and measured the movements of the papillary region. The pressure sensor method was carried out in 18 normal subjects and 69 patients with various diseases. As the result of analysis of wave forms in normal subjects, regular wave form patterns were obtained. In about 71% of cases with biliary diseases irregular wave forms were observed. Irregular wave form patterns were also observed 40% of cases with cholecystolithiasis, while irregular patterns were revealed in 86% cases with choledocholithiasis. The pressure sensor method during for duodenofiberscopy is important diagnostic procedure for the determination of functional disturbances in the papillary region. ( info)
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