Cases reported "Cholestasis, Extrahepatic"

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1/60. Carcinoids of the common bile duct: a case report and literature review.

    Carcinoids of the extrahepatic bile ducts and particularly the common bile duct are extremely rare. A 65-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice. Laboratory and imaging studies gave results that were consistent with an obstructing lesion in the common bile duct. In this case, a stent was inserted initially to decompress the bile ducts. Subsequently a laparotomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy were performed and a tissue diagnosis of carcinoid of the common bile duct was made. The patient was well with no evidence of recurrence 17 months postoperatively. The authors believe this is the 19th reported case of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/60. Combined endoscopic and surgical management of mirizzi syndrome.

    mirizzi syndrome is a form of obstructive jaundice caused by a stone impacted in the gallbladder neck or the cystic duct that impinges on the common hepatic duct with or without a cholecystocholedochal fistula. This syndrome is a rare complication of cholelithiasis that accounts for 0.1% of all patients with gallstone disease. Preoperative recognition is necessary to prevent injury to the common duct during surgery. We present a patient with a preoperative diagnosis of type I mirizzi syndrome that was confirmed and drained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), followed by subtotal cholecystectomy. A review of the literature covering its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical treatment is also presented.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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3/60. Proximal bile duct stricture caused by a pancreatic pseudocyst: intra-operative placement of a metallic stent.

    A 61 year-old man presented with a proximal bile duct stricture caused by a pancreatic pseudocyst, which is of rare occurrence. Although it could not be determined pre-operatively whether the lesion was caused by cholangiocarcinoma or inflammatory disease, a laparotomy revealed that the proximal extrahepatic bile duct was surrounded and constricted by a pancreatic pseudocyst extending into the hepatoduodenal ligament. Since the stricture was not relieved only by removing the contents of the pseudocyst and surgical biliary diversion was considered too difficult, a self-expandable metallic stent was placed intra-operatively, at the strictured site, under ultrasonic guidance, via the transhepatic approach. The post-operative course of the patient was uneventful, and he remains well 22 months after the operation. The intra-operative placement of a metallic stent into the biliary tract can be an alternative option in the relief of biliary obstruction.
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ranking = 8
keywords = operative
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4/60. Traumatic neuroma as a cause of obstructive jaundice.

    A 70-year-old man with previous cholecystectomy developed progressive obstructive jaundice, 3 months before hospitalization. Intraoperatively, a 2 x 2 x 1.5-cm mass in the distal part of the right hepatic duct was excised to release complete obstruction. It was verified as traumatic (amputation) neuroma. Despite rarity, traumatic neuroma of the bile duct should be considered in patients who have antecedent surgical procedure of the biliary tract with subsequent occurrence of extrahepatic biliary obstruction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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5/60. Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct. A rare cause of malignant biliary obstruction.

    BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct are rare and account for 0.2-2% of all gastrointestinal carcinoids. Similar to other tumors of the bile duct, these lesions are difficult to diagnose preoperatively and nearly impossible to distinguish from cholangiocarcinoma. methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed all reported cases of carcinoid tumor of the bile duct and report on two additional cases. RESULTS: Thirty cases of carcinoid tumor of the bile duct have been reported. Among this group were 20 women and 9 men (female-to-male ratio, 2.2:1) with an overall mean age of 47 years (range, 19-79 years). The most common anatomic sites for extrahepatic carcinoid tumors were the common bile duct (58%), perihilar region (28%), cystic duct (11%), and common hepatic duct (3%). jaundice was the most common presenting complaint (55%). Sixty-nine percent of patients with extrahepatic biliary carcinoids had disease confined to the bile duct, whereas 31% had evidence of distant metastases. All patients who presented with localized disease remain disease free with a mean follow-up of 32 months (range, 3 months to 20 years). CONCLUSIONS: carcinoid tumor of the bile duct is a rare form of malignant biliary obstruction. Unlike cholangiocarcinoma, biliary carcinoids occur more commonly in younger patients and in women. Aggressive local invasion by the primary tumor is rare, and metastases occur in less than one-third of patients. All patients who underwent a curative surgical resection were alive and disease free at time of published report, implying a more favorable prognosis. Aggressive surgical resection is recommended.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/60. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy biloma.

    BACKGROUND: jaundice presenting after cholecystectomy may be the initial manifestation of a serious surgical misadventure and requires rigorous diagnostic pursuit and therapeutic intervention. Biloma is a well recognized postcholecystectomy complication that often accompanies biliary ductal injury. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones and three weeks postoperatively developed painless jaundice. Radiographic and endoscopic studies revealed a subhepatic biloma causing extrinsic compression and obstruction of the common hepatic duct. RESULTS: Percutaneous catheter drainage of the biloma combined with endoscopic sphincterotomy successfully relieved the extrahepatic biliary obstruction and resolved the intrahepatic ductal leak responsible for the biloma. CONCLUSION: Although heretofore undescribed, postcholecystectomy jaundice due to extrahepatic bile duct obstruction caused by biloma may occur and can be successfully treated by means of standard radiologic and endoscopic interventions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/60. Obstruction of common bile duct caused by liver fluke--fasciola hepatica.

    Three cases of obstruction of the common bile duct by fasciola hepatica with two of the patients presenting jaundice are reported. The authors have reviewed several publications concerning common bile duct obstruction by liver fluke, a quite rare complication of fascioliasis. Only nineteen cases of common bile duct obstruction caused by fasciola hepatica have been reported in a review of medical publications during last ten years. Clinical presentation, diagnostic methods and considerations, types of surgery are fairly uniform in all of the reported cases. Almost all of patients reviewed, had the history, symptoms and signs characteristic for cholelithiasis including recurrent colic pain in right hypochondriac area, fever or subfebrile temperature, fluctuating or stabile jaundice, and palpable painful gallbladder. The laboratory findings in all cases reviewed had shown leucocytosis, eosinophilia, high or slight elevated serum bilirubin. Echographically commonly revealed dilated intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts containing one or more hyperechogenic elements with or without casting an acoustic shadow. All patients underwent open surgery, comprised with choledochotomy and if possible extraction of the fluke. Only two postoperative cases were of necessity followed by ERCP. In all of our cases the primary pre-operative diagnosis was choledocholithiasis, with diagnose of fascioliasis established at the operation. According to the literature this uncertainty in diagnosis is common because of difficulties in differentiation of fascioliasis versus choledocholithiasis. Considerations for making the differential diagnosis--a history of origin or visiting in endemic area of infection, history of eating of aquatic vegetables, laboratory findings including eosinophilia, fasciola eggs in stool, sonography and radiological imaging results and enzyme-linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA) which has been shown to be rapid, sensitive and quantitative. In all three cases we have observed intraoperative significant signs for liver fascioliasis to include surface scarring of the left lobe on the liver--tracks caused by subcapsular migration and location of the hepatic lesions (these findings were also seen by two authors in literature) with resemblance to Japanese letters. The most effective drug for treatment of fascioliasis according to our experience and literature reviewed is bithionol.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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8/60. Peroral jejunoscopy for treating stenosis of hepaticojejunostomy after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    A 72-year-old woman suffered from relapsing cholangitis after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis. The common hepatic duct had been anastomosed to the jejunum 8 cm distal to the duodenojejunostomy. Peroral jejunoscopy showed a severe stenosis of the hepaticojejunostomy, which was endoscopically enlarged by means of electroincision and balloon dilation, subsequently. No procedure-related complications occurred. The patient has been asymptomatic for 34 months. Most of the strictures of bilioenterostomy are reportedly treated by surgical revision, the percutaneous transhepatic approach, or the percutaneous transjejunal approach. Endoscopic treatment may be attempted in cases in which the postoperative anatomy potentially allows endoscopic access, because of its minimal invasiveness and effectiveness.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/60. Neuromas of the extrahepatic bile ducts as a cause of obstructive jaundice.

    We present four cases of extrahepatic bile duct neuromas causing obstructive jaundice. Two patients with neuromas localized in the hepatic duct had no evidence of gallstones or history of previous surgery. In these subjects, partial resection of the common bile duct and cholecystectomy was followed by hepatico-jejunostomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. In another patient, 7 years after cholecystectomy, a neuroma localized in the hepatic duct was treated by insertion of a T-tube. In the fourth patient, 9 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, partial common bile duct resection and Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was performed. In all cases, the correct diagnosis of this very rare cause of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction was established postoperatively.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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10/60. Cholangiojejunal fistula caused by bile duct stricture after intraoperative injury to the common hepatic artery.

    A 68-year-old man, admitted for the treatment of recurrent cholangitis after a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) performed 3 years previously was diagnosed as having multiple hepaticolithiasis. On laparotomy, the hepatic artery was not recognized. The anastomosed common hepatic duct was obstructed, and a fistula had been formed between the right hepatic duct and the Roux limb of the jejunum. lithotripsy was performed from this fistula and it was reanastomosed. Angiography was performed postoperatively and it revealed common hepatic artery injury, most likely to have occurred during the previous PD. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he has been asymptomatic for 8 months after the operation, indicating that reanastomosis of the fistula can be an effective method. The stricture of the anastomosis was suspected to be mainly due to cholangial ischemia, because no episode of anastomotic leak or retrograde biliary infection had occurred during the PD perioperative period. There are several reports of late stricture of anastomosis 5 or more years after cholangiojejunostomy. This patient, therefore, requires further long-term follow up.
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ranking = 7
keywords = operative
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