Cases reported "Cholestasis"

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1/28. Liver granulomatosis is not an exceptional cause of hypercalcemia with hypoparathyroidism in dialysis patients.

    In 4 of our patients on chronic dialysis, we were intrigued by the association of hypercalcemia /- hyperphosphatemia and normal intact PTH, with anicteric cholestasis without cytolysis. This picture occurred in 2 patients after they resumed dialysis because of a transplant rejection and in a third one after discontinuation of corticosteroids, prescribed for an idiopathic thrombocytopenia. No patient was under calcitriol, CaCO3 therapy, and their hypercalcemia persisted on a low calcium dialyzate (1.25 mmol/l). Obvious etiologies of hypercalcemia were not found: vitamin d or A intoxication, hyperparathyroidism, aluminum intoxication, hemopathy, hiv infection. The hypothesis of a granulomatous disease was made and a liver biopsy was performed showing granulomas with giant epitheloid cells. In one case foreign material (silicon ?) was present in the macrophages. Extensive investigations for sarcoidosis, tuberculosis and mycosis were negative. In 2 cases the so-called "dialysis" granulomatosis actually occurred in transplanted patients, suggesting the role of a transplantation related factor (toxic or virus). In the last case HCV seroconversion was present. In the 4 cases, corticotherapy led to the disappearance of hypercalcemia and to an increase of PTH. Our patients had the biological pattern of low bone turnover disease (hypercalcemia and normal intact PTH) and bone biopsy performed in 2 showed osteomalacia or ABD without aluminum. The association of this pattern with cholestasis should evoke liver granulomatosis, which should be confirmed by a liver biopsy and lead to a treatment by corticosteroids. The masking effect of previous corticoid therapy for transplantation should be pointed out. In 2 cases serial monitoring of plasma calcitriol showed a relation between decreasing high normal calcitriol with prednisone and normalization of calcemia, suggesting the role of inappropriate synthesis of calcitriol by the granuloma. In conclusion, liver granulomatosis should be looked for in dialysis patients on the association of unexplained hypercalcemia and normal PTH with anicteric cholestasis, and confirmed by a liver biopsy. Although still of unknown etiology, its evolution is favourable under corticotherapy.
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keywords = macrophage, bone
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2/28. Metastatic prostate cancer (with prostate-specific antigen of 9996) presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    A 78-year-old man admitted with clinical jaundice and pelvic pain had a total bilirubin level of 6.56 mg/dL, an alkaline phosphatase level of 855 U/L, and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of 9996 ng/mL. A computed tomogram demonstrated marked retroperitoneal, peripancreatic, periceliac, and periaortic lymphadenopathy. A bone scan revealed increased radiolabeled technetium uptake in the pelvis, vertebral column, parietooccipital region, ribs, and appendiceal skeleton. A biopsy of one pelvic lesion revealed metastatic prostate cancer. This man's obstructive jaundice and bone pain had a dramatic response to treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (leupro lide) and antiandrogen (bicalutamide). All bone pair and clinical signs of jaundice disappeared in 1 week His total bilirubin decreased to 0.84 mg/dL by 2 weeks His PSA values reflected this clinical response, decreasing to 4022 ng/mL in 1 week, 2680 ng/dL after 2 weeks and 1028 ng/mL after 1 month of the above therapy.
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ranking = 0.012498953799167
keywords = bone
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3/28. Cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis and hepatitis B after bone marrow transplantation.

    In the setting of transplantation and chronic hepatitis B viral infection there is a unique histological feature termed cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis. The use of nucleoside analogues in the treatment of this condition has been successful. We describe a case of cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis, which occurred after intense immunosuppression for graft versus host disease in a patient with bone marrow transplantations. She was commenced on lamivudine therapy and showed good clinical, biochemical and virological response. However she succumbed due to sepsis.
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ranking = 0.020831589665279
keywords = bone
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4/28. mycobacterium avium complex-associated cholecystitis in an hiv-infected woman.

    mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is commonly associated with fever, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and cytopenias related to invasion of the intestine and bone marrow. infection and clinical disease has been reported in other organs as well. We report the first case of cholecystitis associated with MAC infection of the gallbladder.
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ranking = 0.0041663179330558
keywords = bone
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5/28. Fatal reactivation of hepatitis b virus following cytotoxic chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis.

    hepatitis b virus (HBV) is a well known pathogen that sometimes causes fulminant hepatitis in patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH) is a recently recognized unique variant of viral hepatitis, which has been occasionally reported in HBV-infected recipients of liver, renal, or bone marrow transplantation. We present here a 48-yr-old male in whom HBV was reactivated during post-remission chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia, which resulted in rapidly fatal outcome. He manifested with deterioration of liver function in association with enormous replication of HBV. Liver biopsy showed marked ballooning of hepatocytes, cholestasis, and periportal fibrosis with minimum infiltrates. Immunostaining revealed that hepatocytes were strongly positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Under the diagnosis of FCH, he was treated with lamivudine and interferon beta, which was not effective. autopsy showed severe atrophy of the liver and marked degeneration of hepatocytes. Hematologists should be aware that FCH is a fatal complication that can develop under post-chemotherapy immunosuppressed conditions. Although there is no convincing evidence, prophylactic administration of lamivudine seems to be a reasonable strategy.
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ranking = 0.0041663179330558
keywords = bone
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6/28. Neonatal cholestasis and infantile gaucher disease: a case report.

    AIM: To report on clinical complications of liver disease occurring during gaucher disease. methods: A case of gaucher disease was revealed by neonatal cholestasis and early onset of portal hypertension. RESULTS: At 7 d of age, a newborn was admitted for cholestasis associated with hepatosplenomegaly and thrombocytopenia. At that time, bone marrow aspirate and liver biopsy did not reveal any engorged cells. The clinical course was marked by early progressive portal hypertension, and the patient died of uncontrollable upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The histological results of the postmortem showed that Gaucher cells were present in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The diagnosis was confirmed by enzymatic studies. CONCLUSION: Isolated neonatal cholestasis could be the first sign of gaucher disease. gaucher disease should always be considered in such circumstances, even if, initially, the bone marrow aspirate and liver biopsy do not reveal any engorged cells.
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ranking = 0.012498953799167
keywords = bone
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7/28. Severe hypercholesterolemia mediated by lipoprotein X in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease of the liver.

    We describe a series of cases of extreme hypercholesterolemia mediated by lipoprotein X in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease of the liver after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. All of the patients presented with a total cholesterol in excess of 1000 mg/dl (25.9 mmol/l). At the time they were also noted to have pseudohyponatremia. Cholesterol appeared to be predominantly carried by lipoprotein X. Intrahepatic cholestasis leading to reflux of bile lipoproteins into the bloodstream and subsequent formation of protein X appears to be the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Complications, including retinal cholesterol thromboembolism and cholesteroloma of the lung have been seen in the patient with the highest cholesterol levels. Severe hypercholesterolemia is an important, and likely more common than previously reported, long-term complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is important for clinicians to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges this condition presents.
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ranking = 0.0041663179330558
keywords = bone
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8/28. Photosensitivity and acute liver injury in myeloproliferative disorder secondary to late-onset protoporphyria caused by deletion of a ferrochelatase gene in hematopoietic cells.

    Late-onset erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare complication of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but has not been described in association with a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD). EPP is normally an inherited disorder characterized by photosensitivity that starts in early childhood and results from overproduction of protoporphyrin secondary to ferrochelatase (FECH) deficiency. Severe liver disease occurs in 1% to 2% of patients. Here we report that severe photosensitivity and cholestatic liver disease in a patient with a myeloproliferative disorder was caused by excess protoporphyrin production from a clone of hematopoietic cells in which one FECH allele had been deleted. Our observations suggest that the usual explanation for the association of late-onset EPP with MPD and MDS is acquired somatic mutation of one FECH allele in bone marrow and show for the first time that the consequent overproduction of protoporphyrin may be severe enough to cause acute liver damage.
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ranking = 0.0041663179330558
keywords = bone
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9/28. Severe acute cholestatic hepatitis by infiltration of monoclonal plasma cells in multiple myeloma.

    BACKGROUND: Plasma cell infiltration of the liver can be detected in 25 to 40% of patients with multiple myeloma. However, there are only rare cases of multiple myeloma clinically presenting as acute liver disease. CASE REPORT: We report an 88-year-old woman with painless jaundice and abnormal liver function tests, resembling acute cholestatic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis as well as autoimmune hepatitis could be excluded. Liver biopsy revealed a diffuse portal and sinusoidal infiltration of plasma cells with lambda light chain restriction. Serological immune fixation disclosed monoclonal gammopathy of IgG lambda with bone marrow infiltration of 25% plasma cells. After administration of 60 mg prednisolone per day, the elevated liver enzymes declined considerably. CONCLUSION: Hepatic plasma cell infiltration of multiple myeloma can, in rare cases, manifest as acute cholestatic hepatitis, which may respond to treatment with corticosteroids.
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ranking = 0.0041663179330558
keywords = bone
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10/28. Obstructive jaundice after bone marrow transplantation.

    jaundice after bone marrow transplantation is usually a consequence of graft versus host disease. Reported is a patient who presented with obstructive jaundice several months after a successful marrow allograft. Despite a benign bone marrow examination, abdominal ultrasound, upper gastrointestinal series, and endoscopic biopsy were utilized to diagnose recurrent leukemia at the pancreatic head and descending duodenum. The entities of graft versus host disease as related to jaundice, and gastrointestinal leukemia, in the presence of a "remission" bone marrow, are reviewed.
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ranking = 0.02916422553139
keywords = bone
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