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1/28. Cholesteryl ester storage disease: case report during childhood.

    Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is rare and characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in many tissues due to the deficiency of lysosomal acid lipase. We report a 3(1/2)-year-old child with CESD. The diagnosis was indicated by liver biopsy and confirmed by reduced acid lipase activity in leukocytes. ( info)

2/28. Hepatosplenomegalic lipidosis: what unless Gaucher? adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) with anemia, mesenteric lipodystrophy, increased plasma chitotriosidase activity and a homozygous lysosomal acid lipase -1 exon 8 splice junction mutation.

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted for hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. bone marrow cytology showed "sea-blue histiocytes", vacuolated macrophages and plasma cells. As primary liver disease, malignancy or hematologic disorders were excluded, and plasma chitotriosidase activity was increased 27-fold over control, the presence of a lysosomal storage disease was suspected. Biochemical analysis of skin fibroblasts revealed normal glucocerebrosidase and sphingomyelinase activity, but lipid analysis showed a more than 15-fold accumulation of cholesterol esters within the cells. The activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in fibroblast homogenates was decreased to 12% of control subjects. Mutational analysis of the patient's blood showed the homozygous G-->A mutation at position -1 of the exon 8 splice donor site (E8SJM-allele) known for adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD); the polymorphic background was that of the complex haplotype -6Thr, 2Gly, 894 G-->A. Based on clinical, laboratory, cytological and and biochemical findings, CESD can clearly be separated from other more frequent inherited lysosomal storage diseases, e.g. atypical forms of gaucher disease. ( info)

3/28. Lysosomal acid lipase mutations that determine phenotype in Wolman and cholesterol ester storage disease.

    Mechanisms producing the divergent phenotypes, wolman disease (WD) and cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD), associated with the genetic deficiency of human lysosomal acid lipase/cholesterol ester hydrolase (hLAL) function were investigated with the determination of HLAL activity levels, mRNA and protein expression, and defects in structural gene sequences in cells from three WD and five CESD patients. Measured with natural substrates, HLAL activities were all below 2% of normal, regardless of phenotype. immunoblotting showed a lack of detectable hLAL protein in all mutant fibroblasts. Four CESD, but no WD genomes contained at least one allele with a specific exon 8 splice junction mutation, c.894 G>A, that encodes a shortened form of hLAL mRNA. Other CESD mutations were identical in type to the WD defects: nucleotide deletions (positions 397, 684, 980), insertions (594), or substitutions (193, 347) that result in premature terminations precluding any function. The only exception was a substitution at nucleotide 866 in the CESD case without an exon 8 splicing mutation; expression of the predicted S289C change in a transfection assay produced a low, but clearly measurable, level of acid esterase activity. Although it is not easily demonstrated in conventional assays, CESD is distinct from WD in that at least one mutant allele has the potential to produce enough residual enzymatic function to ameliorate the phenotype; in the majority of CESD cases this may come from a single, easily detected, splicing mutation in one allele. ( info)

4/28. testis - a novel storage site in human cholesteryl ester storage disease. autopsy report of an adult case with a long-standing subclinical course complicated by accelerated atherosclerosis and liver carcinoma.

    A case of long-standing subclinical cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) manifesting as hyperlipoproteinaemia type IIb without any hepatomegaly is described. The patient underwent surgical vascular interventions because of accelerated atherosclerosis, which dominated his middle age. CESD was an incidental finding when a liver biopsy specimen was taken because liver malignancy was suspected; the patient's condition proved to be due to a cholangiocarcinoma, which led to his death at the of age 52. The autopsy showed moderate-intensity storage in the set of cells characterized by constitutional high-level receptor-mediated LDL endocytosis (hepatocytes, adrenal cortical cells) and also revealed storage in the leydig cells. The severity with which histiocytes were affected varied regionally, ranging from minimal detectable storage or none at all (gut, lymph nodes, spleen) to extreme lysosomal expansion by cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (bone marrow) or by ceroid (lung, testicular stroma), or by both (liver). The density of the histiocytic population did not correlate with the degree to which parenchymal cells were affected except in the testicular stroma, where it was prominent. The patient was a mixed heterozygote for the G934A and DeltaC(673-5) mutations. ( info)

5/28. Accumulated lipids, aberrant fatty acid composition and defective cholesterol ester hydrolase activity in cholesterol ester storage disease.

    We confirmed accumulation of glycogen and lipids, particularly cholesterol esters, in the liver of a patient with cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatic cholesterol ester concentration was 100-200 times that found in normal livers. Analysis of the fatty acid composition indicated a higher proportion (41%) of cholesterol linoleate (C18-2), a slightly lower proportion (33%) of cholesterol oleate (C18-1) and normal proportions (14%) of cholesterol palmitate (C16-0) in the CESD patient compared with the control. This fatty acid composition of cholesterol esters and the fatty acid composition of other classes of lipids in the patient's liver resembled that of LDL. We also found that acid cholesterol ester hydrolase activity in the CESD liver was reduced to 5% of that in the control liver, while neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase activity remained at the control level. These results suggest that accumulated cholesterol esters were derived mainly from serum LDL and that the accumulation resulted from lack of acid cholesterol ester hydrolase. ( info)

6/28. Subclinical course of cholesteryl ester storage disease in an adult with hypercholesterolemia, accelerated atherosclerosis, and liver cancer.

    Few cases of asymptomatic cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) due to low enzymatic activity of human lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolase (hLAL) have been reported thus far in adults Here, we describe a 51-year-old man with a long clinical history of mixed hyperlipoproteinemia and severe premature atherosclerosis, but with no signs of hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, or splenomegaly. The disease was discovered by chance in a biopsy performed because of suspected liver cancer (proven to be a cholangiocarcinoma). Residual hLAL activity in peripheral leukocytes was determined to be 6% of control values. dna sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that the patient was a compound heterozygote for the prevalent CESD exon 8 splice site mutation (G934A) and the deletion of a C (nucleotide 673, 674, or 675) in exon 6 of the hLAL gene, resulting in premature termination of protein translation at residue 195. The patient died of liver failure as a consequence of extensive tumor infiltration at age 52. Lipid analysis revealed moderate cholesteryl ester storage in the liver and in the suprarenal cortex, and massive accumulation in the testicular histiocytes and leydig cells, resulting in a pronounced secondary atrophy of the seminiferous tubules. Our case study demonstrates that hepatomegaly is an inconstant feature, even in CESD patients compound heterozygous for a Wolman mutation which results in complete loss of hLAL enzymic activity. It also highlights the need to be aware of this condition as it may be underdiagnosed. ( info)

7/28. Cholesteryl ester storage disease: complex molecular effects of chronic lovastatin therapy.

    To better characterize the in vivo effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition on human lipid metabolism, an adolescent male with cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) was treated chronically with lovastatin. Therapy was associated with decreased liver-spleen size, improved but not normal serum lipids, a 26% decrease in hepatic cholesteryl ester, a 12% decrease in unesterified hepatic cholesterol, and a fourfold increase in hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein. Hepatic mRNA levels for the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein (apo) B standardized to levels of hepatic gamma actin mRNA were unchanged with therapy. Kinetic studies revealed no change in the LDL fractional catabolic rate and a decrease in the LDL production rate. Size exclusion chromatography showed striking reductions in plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and intermediate density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol but not LDL cholesterol with therapy. Mean LDL particle size and the LDL particle size range were increased by treatment. However, there was no difference in the ability of pretreatment or treatment LDL to bind to the LDL receptor on cultured cells consistent with previous studies in animals, indicating that lovastatin may alter LDL particles to impair interaction with the LDL receptor in vivo but not in vitro. lovastatin therapy in CESD appears to be clinically beneficial and has complex effects on lipid metabolism that may include a dominant inhibitory effect on hepatic lipoprotein production, posttranscriptionally mediated induction of the LDL receptor, and alterations of LDL particles that interfere with their clearance by the LDL receptor in vivo. ( info)

8/28. safety and efficacy of treatment of pediatric cholesteryl ester storage disease with lovastatin.

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the safety and efficacy of lovastatin in the treatment of cholesteryl ester storage disease in siblings who were ages 11.6 and 5 y at the beginning of treatment. Mean total and LDL cholesterol in the male proband, 7.40 and 5.68 mmol/L, respectively, on diet alone, fell 30% to 5.2 (p < or = 0.001) and 31% to 3.9 mmol/L (p < or = 0.001) on lovastatin 40 mg/d over 3.3 y, with simultaneous resolution of hepatosplenomegaly. In his sister, on lovastatin 20 mg/d for 1.5 y, total and LDL cholesterol fell, but not significantly; her hepatosplenomegaly was also reduced on treatment. lovastatin was well tolerated without overt side effects or complications and without adverse changes in liver function tests or creatine phosphokinase. Normal and expected accretion of height and weight occurred during the treatment period for both children. lovastatin appears to be a safe and effective treatment for pediatric cholesteryl ester storage disease. ( info)

9/28. wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease diagnosed by histological and ultrastructural examination of intestinal and liver biopsy.

    Deficient activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) results in massive accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in most tissues of the body. The deficiency state is expressed in two major phenotypes: wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). WD occurs in infancy and is nearly always fatal before the age of 1 year, whereas CESD can be more benign and may not be detected until adulthood. Since there are no specific routine laboratory observations that suggest these metabolic diseases, diagnosis is based on the clinical picture combined with LAL deficiency in cultured skin fibroblasts or peripheral lymphocytes. Both disorders are rather rare, considering that about a hundred of cases have been described up to now. This study describes the histological and ultrastructural aspects disclosed by intestinal or liver biopsy in three cases of WD and in two cases of CESD. Furthermore, it emphasizes the role of morphological findings in pointing the diagnosis towards a metabolic storage disease. ( info)

10/28. Treatment of dyslipidemia with lovastatin and ezetimibe in an adolescent with cholesterol ester storage disease.

    BACKGROUND: cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive illness that results from mutations in the LIPA gene encoding lysosomal acid lipase. CESD patients present in childhood with hepatomegaly and dyslipidemia characterized by elevated total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), with elevated triglycerides and depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Usual treatment includes a low fat diet and a statin drug. RESULTS: In an 18-year old with CESD, we documented compound heterozygosity for two LIPA mutations: a novel frameshift nonsense mutation and a deletion of exon 8. The patient had been treated with escalating doses of lovastatin for approximately 80 months, with approximately 15% decline in mean LDL-C. The addition of ezetimibe 10 mg to lovastatin 40 mg resulted in an additional approximately 16% decline in mean LDL-C. CONCLUSION: These preliminary anecdotal findings in a CESD patient with novel LIPA mutations support the longer term safety of statins in an adolescent patient and provide new data about the potential efficacy and tolerability of ezetimibe in this patient group. ( info)
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