Cases reported "Chondrodysplasia Punctata"

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1/33. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. A family case report.

    Six cases of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia were found in a 30-member kindred. The kindred showed an increased incidence of other joint abnormalities. A dominant pattern of inheritance was not confirmed.
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2/33. Novel and recurrent EBP mutations in X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata.

    chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is a heterogeneous group of skeletal dysplasias characterized by stippled epiphyses. A subtype of CDP, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2), known also as Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, craniofacial defects, cataracts, ichthyosis, coarse hair, and alopecia. The cause of CDPX2 was unknown until recent identification of mutations in the gene encoding Delta(8),Delta(7) sterol isomerase emopamil-binding protein (EBP). Twelve different EBP mutations have been reported in 14 patients with CDPX2 or unclassified CDP, but with no evidence of correlation between phenotype and nature of the mutation. To characterize additional mutations and investigate possible phenotype-genotype correlation, we sequenced the entire EBP gene in 8 Japanese individuals with CDP; 5 of them presented with a CDPX2 phenotypes. We found EBP mutations in all 5 CDPX2 individuals, but none in non-CDPX2 individuals. Three of these CDPX2 individuals carried novel nonsense mutations in EBPand the other two, separate missense mutations that had been reported also in different ethnic groups. Our results, combined with previous information, suggest all EBP mutations that produce truncated proteins result in typical CDPX2, whereas the phenotypes resulted from missense mutations are not always typical for CDPX2. patients with nonsense mutations showed abnormal sterol profiles consistent with a defect in Delta(8), Delta(7) sterol isomerase. X-inactivation patterns of the patients showed no skewing, an observation that supports the assumption that inactivation of the EBP gene occurs at random in affected individuals.
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3/33. A case of chondrodysplasia punctata with features of osteogenesis imperfecta type II.

    The osteogenesis imperfecta syndromes constitute a group of heterogeneous, heritable skeletal dysplasias. Of the 4 types, type II is the most severe, with an incidence of 1 per 55,000. It is characterized by malformed bones secondary to abnormal collagen type i synthesis. Affected fetuses are divided into 3 groups: A, B, and C. All groups have long bones described as "wrinkled" or "crumpled" secondary to repeated fractures. Many bones also show evidence of demineralization, which is especially evident in the bones of the face and calvaria. In groups A and C, the chest is generally small, with thickened and shortened ribs, and each rib has characteristic "beading" patterns secondary to repeated fracturing. Sonography has traditionally been successful in the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta at an early gestational age. chondrodysplasia punctata describes a heterogeneous group of skeletal disorders characterized by abnormal mineralization of bones during gestation. There are many different causes of it, but some of the specific subtypes include rhizomelic, X-linked dominant (also known as Conradi-Hunermann syndrome), X-linked recessive, and tibia-metacarpal. We report a case of severe X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, which sonographically had common features with osteogenesis imperfecta type II.
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4/33. The Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolni Vestonice: pathology and funerary behavior.

    This work focuses on paleopathological analysis of one of the skeletons from the Gravettian triple burial of Dolni Vestonice (Moravia) and addresses issues of Upper Paleolithic funerary behavior. The burial includes the well-preserved skeletons of three young individuals. The skeleton in the middle (DV 15) is pathological and very problematic to sex; the other two (DV 13 and DV 14) are males and lie in an unusual position. The young age, the possibility of a simultaneous interment, and the position of the three specimens have given rise to speculations about the symbolic significance of this spectacular and intriguing funerary pattern. The pathological condition of the skeleton in the middle further emphasizes its peculiarity. Main pathological changes of the DV 15 skeleton include: asymmetric shortening of the right femur and of left forearm bones, bowing of the right femur, right humerus, and left radius, elongation of fibulae, dysplasias of the vertebral column, and very marked enamel hypoplasias. Scrutiny of the medical literature suggests that the most likely etiology is chondrodysplasia calcificans punctata (CCP) complicated by trauma and early fractures of the upper limbs. CCP is a rare inherited disorder characterized by stippled ossification of the epiphyses. The cartilaginous stippling is a transient phenomenon that disappears during infancy, leaving permanent deformities on affected bones. Among the different forms of CCP, the X-linked dominant form is that resulting in asymmetric shortening and is lethal during early infancy in males. Thus, survival of DV 15 until young adult age would require the specimen to be a female. Clinical findings often associated with the disease (erythemas, ichthyosis, alopecia, cataracts, and joint contractures, among others) would emphasize the singular aspect of this individual, pointing to a condition that should be carefully taken into account when speculating on the significance of that peculiar burial.
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5/33. Identification of a novel mutation in 3beta-hydroxysteroid-Delta8-Delta7-isomerase in a case of Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome.

    The X-linked dominant Conradi-Hunermann-Happle (CDPX2, MIM 302960) syndrome belongs to the rare, heterogeneous group of diseases called chondrodysplasia punctata. The disease has been connected recently with deficiency of 3beta-hydroxysteroid-Delta8-Delta7-isomerase (also called emopamil-binding protein, EBP), catalysing an intermediate step in the conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol (1, 2). We report a case of CDPX2 with a new missense mutation (C-->G 439) in exon 4, leading to a R147G aminoacid substitution in the EBP.
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6/33. Vitreoretinopathy with phalangeal epiphyseal dysplasia, a type II collagenopathy resulting from a novel mutation in the C-propeptide region of the molecule.

    A large family with dominantly inherited rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, premature arthropathy, and development of phalangeal epiphyseal dysplasia, resulting in brachydactyly was linked to COL2A1, the gene encoding proalpha1(II) collagen. Mutational analysis of the gene by exon sequencing identified a novel mutation in the C-propeptide region of the molecule. The glycine to aspartic acid change occurred in a region that is highly conserved in all fibrillar collagen molecules. The resulting phenotype does not fit easily into pre-existing subgroups of the type II collagenopathies, which includes spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and the Kniest, Strudwick, and Stickler dysplasias.
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7/33. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation causes intra-familial phenotypic variation of an EBP mutation in a family with X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata.

    X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by stippled epiphyses, cataracts, alopecia and skin lesions, including ichthyosis. CDPX2 exhibits a number of perplexing clinical features, such as intra- and inter-familial variation, anticipation, incomplete penetrance and possible gonadal and somatic mosaicism. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding Delta8,Delta7 sterol isomerase/emopamil-binding protein (EBP) have been identified in CDPX2. To better understand the genetics of CDPX2, we examined the entire EBP gene by direct sequencing in four CDPX2 patients. We found EBP mutations in all four patients, including three novel mutations: IVS3 1G>A, Y165C and W82C. Surprisingly, a known mutation (R147H) was identified in a patient and her clinically unaffected mother. Expression analysis revealed the mutant allele was predominantly expressed in the patient, while both alleles were expressed in the mother. methylation analysis revealed that the wild-type allele was predominantly inactivated in the patient, while the mutated allele was predominantly inactivated in her mother. Thus, differences in expression of the mutated allele caused by skewed X-chromosome inactivation produced the diverse phenotypes within the family. Our findings could explain some of the perplexing features of CDPX2. The possibility that an apparently normal parent is a carrier should be considered when examining seemingly sporadic cases and providing genetic counseling to CDPX2 families.
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8/33. Molecular, biochemical, and phenotypic analysis of a hemizygous male with a severe atypical phenotype for X-linked dominant Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome and a mutation in EBP.

    X-linked dominant Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome (CDPX2; MIM 302960) is a rare chondrodysplasia punctata primarily affecting females. CDPX2 is presumed lethal in males, although a few affected males have been reported. CDPX2 is a cholesterol biosynthetic disorder due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta8,delta7-isomerase deficiency caused by mutations in the emopamil binding protein (EBP) gene. A 2.5-year-old Caucasian male was followed from the age of 6 weeks and noted to have significant developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, and patchy hypopigmentation. Multiple congenital anomalies included a unilateral cataract, esotropia, crossed renal ectopia, stenotic ear canals, and failure to thrive, requiring G-tube placement. Multiple minor anomalies and ptosis were noted. No skeletal asymmetry or chondrodysplasia punctata were noted on skeletal survey at 6 weeks and 13 months. An extensive genetic work-up including cholesterol (126-176 mg/dl) and 7-dehydrocholesterol was unrevealing. However, the levels of 8(9)-cholestenol and 8-dehydrocholesterol were mildly increased in plasma, which was confirmed in cultured fibroblasts. This prompted molecular analysis of the EBP gene, which revealed a novel hemizygous (nonmosaic) mutation in exon 2 (L18P). Two restriction digests were developed that confirmed this mutation in skin fibroblasts, blood, and buccal cells (all nonmosaic). We determined that the patient's mother (adopted) also has the L18P mutation enabling prenatal diagnosis of a normal male fetus. She has normal stature, no asymmetry, no cataracts at this time, and has a patch of hyperpigmentation on her chest best visualized on Woods lamp examination, characteristic of CDPX2. The mild maternal phenotype has been described previously. However, this nonmosaic missense mutation has resulted in a severe phenotype in her surviving son.
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9/33. X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2) caused by single gene mosaicism in a male.

    X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2; Happle syndrome) is recognized almost exclusively in females, who display mosaic and asymmetric features, presumed to arise secondary to random X-inactivation. CDPX2 results from mutation of an X-linked gene coding for sterol-delta(8)-delta(7) isomerase (emopamil binding protein). We describe a boy with clinical features of CDPX2 (including those presumed to arise usually secondary to functional mosaicism in females). Biochemical and molecular studies demonstrate that he is mosaic for a sterol-delta(8)-delta(7) isomerase gene mutation. He is the first reported example of single gene mosaicism giving rise to CDPX2 in a male.
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10/33. Molecular prenatal diagnosis in a case of an X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata.

    X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, (CDPX2-MIM302960) also known as Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, is a rare form of skeletal dysplasia that affects the skeleton, skin, hair, and eyes. The disorder is caused by mutations within the emopamil binding protein (Ebp) that functions as a delta(8), delta(7) sterol isomerase in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. To date, over 40 separate mutations have been reported in the Ebp gene, EBP, with no obvious correlation between the molecular defects and the severity of the clinical phenotype. We have studied a 30-year-old woman who presented in adulthood with skin, hair, and mild skeletal defects but no ocular abnormalities and have identified a heterozygous missense mutation within the third transmembrane domain of the protein. In addition, we have performed molecular prenatal testing on her unborn fetus. The results demonstrate inter-familial variability for missense mutations within the emopamil binding protein and add to the molecular data for CDPX2.
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