Cases reported "Chondrosarcoma"

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1/9. Bone tumors in the pelvis presenting growth during pregnancy.

    Among 56 cases of a giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) and 52 cases of chondrosarcoma (CSA) in our series, four patients were discovered to have a tumor in the pelvic bone that grew in size during pregnancy. These four rare cases are described here. They include three cases of a GCT in the sacrum and one case of a CSA in the innominate bone. The dextran-coated charcoal assay and immunohistochemical techniques demonstrated the independence of these tumors from hormonal regulation despite the growth stimulated during pregnancy. It was concluded that the delay in detection of these tumors in the pelvis was just related to the opportunity afforded for unexpected growth during pregnancy. Surgical management was difficult due to the delay in tumor detection. The initial complaints such as pain, discomfort, or numbness around the pelvis were misinterpreted as symptoms of pregnancy. It should be kept in mind that during pregnancy, any pain or numbness in the pelvic region could be the direct result of a tumor in the pelvic bone.
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2/9. Extracorporeal irradiation for malignant bone tumors.

    PURPOSE: Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) has been used selectively in the management of primary malignant bone tumors since 1996. We report our techniques for ECI and the short-term oncologic and orthopedic outcomes. methods AND MATERIALS: Sixteen patients with primary malignant bone tumors were treated with ECI from 1996 to 2000. The median age was 14 years. The histologic diagnoses were Ewing's sarcoma (11), osteosarcoma (4) and chondrosarcoma (1). The treated sites were femur (7), tibia (4), humerus (2), ilium (2), and sacrum (1). Following induction chemotherapy in Ewing's sarcomas and osteosarcoma, en bloc resection of the tumor and tumor-bearing bone was performed. A single dose of 50 Gy was delivered to the bone extracorporeally using either a linear accelerator (9 cases) or a blood product irradiator (7 cases). The orthopedic outcome was recorded using a standard functional scale. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 19.5 months, there were no cases of local recurrence or graft failure. One patient required amputation due to chronic osteomyelitis. For the 10 patients with follow-up greater than 18 months, the functional outcomes were graded good to excellent. CONCLUSION: The short-term oncologic and orthopedic results are encouraging and suggest that ECI provides a good alternative for reconstruction in limb conservative surgery in selected patients. This technique should only be used in a multidisciplinary setting, where careful follow-up is available to assess the long-term outcomes.
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keywords = sacrum
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3/9. Novel translocation (9;12)(q22;q24) in secondary chondrosarcoma arising from hereditary multiple exostosis.

    We report a new translocation in a patient with a history of hereditary multiple exostosis (HME) who developed a recurrent grade I chondrosarcoma involving the sacrum and retroperitoneum. Karyotypic analysis of the tumor revealed a sole chromosome abnormality t(9;12)(q22;q24.3). To our knowledge, this translocation has not been previously identified in either chondrosarcoma, HME, or related tumor types. Our novel translocation may be related to the sarcomatous degeneration of the pre-existing exostosis.
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keywords = sacrum
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4/9. Clinical study of malignant tumors originating in the pelvic region.

    We evaluated the surgical problems encountered during treatment of 14 patients with malignant tumors originating in the pelvic region at our department. The tumor involved the iliac bone in 6 patients, the ischial bone in 2, the pubic bone in 2, and the gluteal region in 4. Invasion to the sacrum was observed in 7 patients. Twelve patients underwent surgical procedures consisting of intralesional resection in 6, marginal resection in 3, and wide margin resection in 3. Six of the 7 patients with sacral invasion developed local recurrence. Two patients with chondrosarcoma and one with parosteal osteosarcoma survived for 4 or more years, but the mean survival period in those with high grade malignant tumors was 11 months. These findings indicate the difficulties encountered in the treatment of malignant pelvic tumors.
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keywords = sacrum
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5/9. Computer aided tumor resection in the pelvis.

    Surgical treatment of malignant tumors within the pelvis is a complex problem due to the anatomy and biomechanics. There are standardized preoperative diagnostic tools like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that provide multidimensional information. However, this information cannot be transferred intraoperatively. Computer aided orthopedic surgery (CAOS) may be a solution for precise intraoperative accuracy for these indications. We report on two patients with tumors within the pelvis. In one patient, an infiltrating recurrent chordoma within the sacrum was resected with CAOS. The other patient presented with a periacetabular chondrosarcoma. Resection was done with navigation so precise that a custom-made hemipelvis prosthesis with a special coating fit. In both patients, a complete resection was achieved with tumor-free resection margins. Navigation may be helpful in tumor surgery within the pelvis.
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6/9. Transarticular invasion of joints by bone tumors: hypothesis.

    Eight bone tumors with associated transarticular invasion of the sacroiliac joints are described. All invaded the true synovial joint and spread to the opposing bone. One tumor was benign, and the other seven were malignant. Five of the seven were primary and two were metastatic cancer. One, a myeloma, invaded the disc spaces between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae and the fifth lumbar vertebra and sacrum as well as the sacroiliac joint. The right facet joints of the two vertebrae were also invaded. After a thorough search of the literature, we find that the sacroiliac joint is the most common joint to be invaded by tumors. This is followed by the vertebral disc spaces and, last, the facet joints. Apart from these joints, we were unable to find any radiographic documentation of other joints being transarticularly invaded by tumors. We noted that there is a direct relation between transarticular tumor spread and joints that lack mobility and that certain tumors, benign and malignant, tend to invade these joints.
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keywords = sacrum
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7/9. Complete removal of vertebrae for extirpation of tumors. A 20-year experience.

    Long-term results of complete removal of vertebrae with a minimum follow-up period of seven years are reported in 23 consecutive patients from March 1968 to January 1981. Seven patients were treated with vertebrectomy above the sacrum: three for a giant-cell tumor (T11, T12, and L1; T11; and L4), one for chondrosarcoma (one-half T6, T7, and one-half T8), one for chordoma (L3), one for plasmocytoma (L1), and one for a metastasis of renal carcinoma (L1). The latter two patients eventually died of generalized disease, whereas the other five patients have no evidence of tumor after seven to 20 years. In the six patients in whom the spine was reconstructed using corticocancellous iliac bone, a block-vertebra was created by the grafts and the adjacent vertebrae, allowing two women to complete one or more pregnancies successfully. Sixteen patients were treated with removal of sacral vertebrae (from one-half S3, S4, and S5 to all). None of the seven patients treated with adequate surgery for a sacral chordoma has had a local recurrence. Two women have given birth to children after sacral amputations, one performed for rhabdomyosarcoma and the other for a huge ganglioneuroma. A patient treated with a hemicorporectomy for chondrosarcoma 18 years ago has no evidence of tumor.
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keywords = sacrum
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8/9. chondrosarcoma in fibrous dysplasia of the pelvis. A case report and review of the literature.

    Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia to chondrosarcoma is rare. We report a case in which malignancy developed in an area of fibrous dysplasia in the ilium. We believe this to be the second reported case at this site. Treatment was by excision of the hemipelvis including the ala of the sacrum. A review of the literature is presented.
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keywords = sacrum
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9/9. Case report 790. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sacrum.

    We have presented a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sacrum in a 20-year-old woman. We have emphasized that CT and MR are the best imaging modalities for the assessment of the neoplasm and the surgical decision-making process. Histologic study is mandatory for diagnosis of the tumor, with its characteristic dual pattern of chondroid tissue and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. The rarity of the neoplasm, its deep pelvic location and nonspecific symptomatology led to a late diagnosis and an unfortunate but necessary sacral amputation resulting in bladder and bowel functional sequelae.
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