Cases reported "Chordoma"

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1/84. Interesting radiologic findings in suprasellar mass lesions. Report of three cases.

    The authors report three quite rare lesions of the sellar/parasellar region. They are namely; pituitary abscess, cystic macroadenoma and osteochondroma. In none of the cases, the preoperative diagnostic priority was not same as the final histopathologic diagnosis. The radiologic findings of these pathologies are discussed with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
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2/84. A new transfacial approach for lesions of the clivus and parapharyngeal space: the partial segmented Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Tumors of the clival and parapharyngeal areas are a challenge because of their location. They used to be considered inaccessible because the aggressive approaches employed caused elevated levels of morbidity. This fact led to more conservative approaches that attempted to preserve the exposure of the lesion. These approaches were a combination of cranial and facial procedures, thus utilizing a combined effort between neurosurgeons and maxillofacial surgeons. We described our experience with a partial segmented Le Fort I osteotomy added to a transmandibular approach to expose a chordoma of the clivus and left parapharyngeal space. A three-dimensional imaging was used as a diagnostic tool and to plan the optimal surgical approach. The operative technique was described in this case study. Some important technical details of the approach are described. The global outcome was favorable.
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3/84. The surgical management of sacrococcygeal chordoma.

    BACKGROUND: Complete excision of sacrococcygeal chordoma is necessary at initial surgery due to its poor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, due to the anatomic characteristics of this tumor, intralesional excision tends to be employed, resulting in local recurrences in many patients. methods: The clinical features and results of surgical treatment of 13 patients with sacrococcygeal chordoma who were treated at the Chiba Cancer Center and Chiba University beginning in 1972 were analyzed. RESULTS: Intralesional excision was performed in eight patients, marginal excision in two patients, and wide excision in three patients. Local recurrence was observed in six patients, with a high proportion occurring in the gluteal muscles attached to the sacrum (the gluteus maximus muscle and piriform muscle). Seven patients died of their disease and six patients were alive with no evidence of disease. The 5-year survival rate was 81.8% and the 10-year survival rate was 29.1%. CONCLUSIONS: It is highly possible that residual chordoma infiltrating the gluteal muscles accounts mainly for the local recurrences. Therefore, a precise preoperative assessment of the tumor infiltration into the gluteal muscles by magnetic resonance imaging is important for the prevention of local recurrence. For complete tumor removal, a radical wide posterior surgical margin of the gluteal muscles should be employed. A less radical anterior surgical margin is sufficient because there is a firm presacral fascia anterior to the sacrum. The appropriate surgical margin for the complete removal of the chordoma differs according to the location of the tumor and tissues involved.
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4/84. Surgical management of intraosseous skull base tumors with aid of Operating arm System.

    Invasion of bone and critical neurovascular structures often impedes complete resection of intraosseous skull base neoplasms, and these lesions tend to recur unless all infiltrated bone is removed. Evolving experience with image guidance over the past few years indicates the potential value of neuronavigation in skull base lesions diffusely infiltrating or fixed to bone structures. We report our early experience with the Radionics Operating arm System (OAS), specifically emphasizing its utility as an adjunct in the treatment of intraosseous skull base tumors, mainly meningiomas. In April 1995 the OAS was introduced into clinical use at the neurosurgical university clinic in Munster, germany. Since then, the system's utility has been explored in 10 patients out of the total neuronavigation series presenting with intraosseous skull base tumors (nine females and one male, mean age 47 years; nine meningiomas, one chordoma). For navigational planning, both 3-mm computed tomography scans and a set of 3-mm fat-suppression magnetic resonance images were chosen. At least four adhesive skin markers were used for system calibration. The system was technically usable in all cases in this small series. Because of the relative immobility of the bone structures and/or the tumor, no significant deviation from the preoperative registration accuracy was noted at the end of the procedures. The main advantages were easier localization and resection of infiltrated bone, which is often not grossly identifiable, even under the microscope. Our preliminary experience with the OAS suggests that image guidance is helpful in this type of lesion, providing better anatomical orientation during surgery and delineating tumor margins and their relation to critical neurovascular structures. The problem of a possible intracranial tumor and brain shift can be neglected in these lesions. The system facilitates resection by volumetric contour information, allowing more aggressive and complete resection.
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5/84. Complex cervical spine neoplastic disease: reconstruction after surgery by using a vascularized fibular strut graft. Case report.

    The authors report a case of an aggressive chordoma in the cervical spine of a 15-year-old girl who underwent radical resection followed by reconstruction using an anterior vascularized fibular strut graft and posterior arthrodesis prior to receiving immediate postoperative radiation therapy. The patient had successful graft incorporation 4 months postoperatively. The authors review the advantages of using vascularized fibular strut grafts for the treatment of multilevel cervical spine neoplastic disease and discuss the theoretical advantages of using vascularized grafts that tolerate therapeutic levels of radiation.
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keywords = operative
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6/84. Stereotactic radiosurgery. VI. Posterior displacement of the brainstem facilitates safer high dose radiosurgery for clival chordoma.

    The current 'best treatment method' for clival chordoma is regarded as radical surgical resection followed by radiation therapy; radiosurgery usually plays a major part in the radiation therapy programme. From primate radiation biology studies and from clinical observations, the brainstem is known to be the most radiosensitive part of the central nervous system. The tolerance of the brainstem to high single radiosurgical doses of radiation is limited (all the more so in programmes such as our own where conventionally fractionated radiotherapy precedes radiosurgery or the patient has relapsed after conventional radiotherapy--as in the patient reported here). In this report we describe the operative displacement of the brainstem posteriorly at time of resection such that the proportion of the prescribed postoperative radiosurgical dose received by the brainstem is greatly reduced (by the order of 50%). The gains perceived to accrue from this technique are quantified from isodosimetric considerations not only in dose sparing to the brainstem, but importantly in that the dose to the clival chordoma may be highly significantly increased without exceeding current accepted tolerance brainstem dose limits. Two patients have received this joint surgical/radiosurgical approach to date; the second case is presented here in detail.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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7/84. Planning and simulation of neurosurgery in a virtual reality environment.

    OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with preoperative neurosurgical planning in our stereoscopic virtual reality environment for 21 patients with intra- and extra-axial brain tumors and vascular malformations. methods: A neurosurgical planning system called VIVIAN (Virtual Intracranial Visualization and Navigation) was developed for the Dextroscope, a virtual reality environment in which the operator reaches with both hands behind a mirror into a computer-generated stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) object and moves and manipulates the object in real time with natural 3-D hand movements. Patient-specific data sets from multiple imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance venography, and computed tomography) were coregistered, fused, and displayed as a stereoscopic 3-D object. A suite of 3-D tools accessible inside the VIVIAN workspace enabled users to coregister data, perform segmentation, obtain measurements, and simulate intraoperative viewpoints and the removal of bone and soft tissue. RESULTS: VIVIAN was used to plan neurosurgical procedures primarily in difficult-to-access areas, such as the cranial base and the deep brain. The intraoperative and virtual reality 3-D scenarios correlated well. The VIVIAN system substantially contributed to surgical planning by 1) providing a quick and better understanding of intracranial anatomic and abnormal spatial relationships, 2) simulating the craniotomy and the required cranial base bone work, and 3) simulating intraoperative views. CONCLUSION: The VIVIAN system allows users to work with complex imaging data in a fast, comprehensive, and intuitive manner. The 3-D interaction of this virtual reality environment is essential to the efficient assembly of surgically relevant spatial information from the data derived from multiple imaging techniques. The usefulness of the system is highly dependent on the accurate coregistration of the data and the real-time speed of the interaction.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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8/84. A case report: maxillotomy for removal of a clival chordoma.

    Although clival chordomas account for only a small percentage (0.2%) of all intracranial tumors, they represent a considerable challenge for the neurosurgical team. The problems of surgical accessibility to the clivus, management of postoperative complications and tendency of the chordoma to recur are well recognized. This infiltrative tumor located at the skull base has the potential to metastasize and recur, thus meeting the characteristics of a malignant tumor. The maxillotomy, as well as a number of other surgical approaches to the clivus, has been developed and refined for removal of this formidable tumor. It is important to have an understanding of the anatomy of the clivus, the pathology of a chordoma and the surgical technique of a maxillotomy. A case report demonstrates these concepts and nursing considerations for the patient undergoing a maxillotomy for resection of a clival chordoma.
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keywords = operative
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9/84. Gluteus maximus adipomuscular turnover or sliding flap in the surgical treatment of extensive sacral chordomas.

    Two cases with extensive posterior peritoneal defects after high sacral amputation for sacral chordoma are presented. An adipomuscular flap as a modification of the conventional gluteus maximus muscle flap was designed to obliterate an extensive residual posterior peritoneal dead space. The deep adipose tissue beneath the superficial fascia left on the gluteus maximus muscle was effectively used to provide more volume to the flap. The adipomuscular flap was turned over into the posterior peritoneal defect in the first case, and the flap was slid into the cavity in the other case. The adipomuscular flap eventually enabled the successful reconstruction of the posterior peritoneal defect, and the volume of the flap was well maintained behind the rectum, according to the postoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings in both cases.
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keywords = operative
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10/84. Cervical chordoma with vertebral artery encasement mimicking neurofibroma: MRI findings.

    A case of cervical chordoma in a 36-year-old white man with hypoesthesia in the neck and right shoulder, neck pain, and restricted neck mobility is presented. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed radiolucency of the body of C2 on the right side and enlargement of the right intervertebral foramen at C2-C3 level. Tumor encasement of the vertebral artery was demonstrated by MR imaging and confirmed by conventional arteriography. This proved to be particularly important for preoperative assessment.
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keywords = operative
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