Cases reported "Chorea"

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1/83. Anticonvulsant-induced dyskinesias: a comparison with dyskinesias induced by neuroleptics.

    anticonvulsants cause dyskinesias more commonly than has been appreciated. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH), carbamazepine, primidone, and phenobarbitone may cause asterixis. DPH, but not other anticonvulsants, may cause orofacial dyskinesias, limb chorea, and dystonia in intoxicated patients. These dyskinesias are similar to those caused by neuroleptic drugs and may be related to dopamine antagonistic properties possessed by DPH.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dyskinesia, dystonia, orofacial
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2/83. From off-period dystonia to peak-dose chorea. The clinical spectrum of varying subthalamic nucleus activity.

    The effect of chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on levodopa-induced dyskinaesias was investigated in eight patients with fluctuating Parkinson's disease complicated by functionally disabling off-period dystonia. All of the patients also had severe diphasic and peak-dose chorea, so that it was possible to study the effect of high-frequency stimulation on the different types of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. Off-period fixed dystonia was reduced by 90% and off-period pain by 66%. After acute levodopa challenge, high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced diphasic mobile dystonia by 50% and peak-dose choreic dyskinaesias by 30%. The effect of bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the STN on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score had the same magnitude as the preoperative effect of levodopa. This allowed the levodopa dose to be reduced by 47%. The combination of reduced medication and continuous high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced the duration of on-period diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias by 52% and the intensity by 68%. Acute high-frequency stimulation of the STN mimics an acute levodopa challenge, concerning both parkinsonism and dyskinaesias, and suppresses off-period dystonia. Increasing the voltage can induce repetitive dystonic dyskinaesias, mimicking diphasic levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. A further increase in voltage leads to a shift from a diphasic-pattern dystonia to a peak-dose pattern choreodystonia. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN also mimics the benefit of levodopa on parkinsonism and improves all kinds of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias to varying degrees. Off-period dystonia, associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the STN is directly affected by stimulation and disappears immediately. The effect of chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN on diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias is more complex and is related directly to the functional inhibition of the STN and indirectly to the replacement of the pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation by continuous functional inhibition of the STN. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN allows a very gradual increase in stimulation parameters with increasing beneficial effect on parkinsonism while reducing the threshold for the elicitation of stimulation-induced dyskinaesias. In parallel with improvement of parkinsonism, the levodopa dose can be gradually decreased. As diphasic dystonic dyskinaesias are improved to a greater degree than peak-dose dyskinaesias, both direct and indirect mechanisms may be involved. Peak-dose choreatic dyskinaesias, associated with little evidence of parkinsonism and thus with low neuronal activity in the STN, are improved, mostly indirectly. Fixed off-period dystonia, mobile diphasic dystonia and peak-dose choreodystonia seem to represent a continuous clinical spectrum reflecting a continuous spectrum of underlying activity patterns of STN neurons.
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ranking = 0.016515818205052
keywords = dystonia
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3/83. Familial paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: clinical findings in a large Japanese family and genetic linkage to 2q.

    BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is a rare familial movement disorder that has been mapped to chromosome 2q31-36. OBJECTIVE: To study the first Japanese family with PDC clinically and genetically. patients AND methods: We studied a large Japanese family in which at least 17 members in 6 generations have been affected by PDC. We interviewed and examined 26 family members, 8 of whom revealed choreoathetosis-like and dystonialike involuntary movement and 1 of whom revealed no involuntary movement but only muscle stiffness such as the aura of paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC). genetic linkage studies of this family were carried out with polymorphic dna markers. RESULTS: The attacks of involuntary movement or muscle stiffness were precipitated by ovulation, menstruation, emotional stress, or caffeine or alcohol ingestion. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed no abnormalities. clonazepam therapy was effective for reducing the attacks, and ingestion of garlic was believed by patients to be effective for softening the attacks. An affected woman with only muscle stiffness showed remission after hysterectomy for hysteromyoma. This woman also had the disease haplotype and transferred it to her typical PDC-affected daughter. Maximal pairwise logarithm of odds scores exceeding 2.00 were obtained at D2S2250, D2S1242, D2S377, D2S2148, and D2S126. The PDC gene was demonstrated by linkage analyses to be located in a 15.3-centimorgan interval lying between D2S371 and D2S339 based on pairwise and multipoint logarithm of odds scores and obligate recombination events in affected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Linkage of PDC to chromosome 2q32-36 was confirmed in a Japanese family. The clinical characterizations of this family with PDC include that ovulation seems also to be a precipitating factor of the attacks and that hysterectomy seems to be effective for softening the attacks. Although low-dose clonazepam treatment was most effective, garlic use was believed by affected members to be effective for softening the attacks. Furthermore, based on the results of clinical and genetic analyses, we suggest that muscle stiffness without involuntary movement may represent a forme fruste of PDC.
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ranking = 0.0011797013003609
keywords = dystonia
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4/83. Syringomyelic dystonia and athetosis.

    Two patients with movement disorders associated with syringomyelia are described, one of whom developed unusual torticollis, and the other had choreoathetoid-dystonic movements of the hand and arm. In each case, the movements resolved with decompression of the syrinx. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms explored.
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ranking = 0.0047188052014435
keywords = dystonia
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5/83. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and movement disorders.

    A series of six patients with movement disorders associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is reported. The AVMs were classified according to the Spetzler-Martin classification as grade V (one patient), grade IV (four patients), and as grade III (one patient). One patient had action-induced hemidystonia caused by a contralateral frontoparietal AVM which compressed the putamen and was supplied partially by enlarged lenticulostriate arteries. Two patients presented with unilateral cortical tremor associated with contralateral high-frontal cortical/subcortical AVMs sparing the basal ganglia. Another patient developed hemidystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism after bleeding of a contralateral temporooccipital AVM and subsequent ischemia. Two patients had focal dystonia after thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage from AVMs. Five patients were operated on. The movement disorder was abolished in one patient postoperatively. Different mechanisms were identified that are relevant for the development of AVM-related movement disorders: mass effect, diaschisis, local parenchymal altered cerebral blood flow, and hemorrhagic or ischemic structural lesions.
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ranking = 0.0035391039010826
keywords = dystonia
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6/83. Acute onset of chorea and dystonia following a febrile illness in a 1-year-old boy.

    A 12-month-old boy with acute onset hemichorea and dystonia following a gastroenteritis has abnormal signal intensities of his basal ganglia on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A rigorous laboratory investigation is successful in diagnosing his rare condition. A discussion of the differential of abnormal basal ganglia on MRI is presented to help illustrate this case.
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ranking = 0.0058985065018044
keywords = dystonia
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7/83. chorea in patients with AIDS.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe differing etiologies and possible anatomoclinical correlates of choreic movements in a series of AIDS patients. methods: We analyzed the clinical records and neuroimaging data of 5 consecutive AIDS patients who developed choreic movements at our center from January, 1994 to December, 1996. RESULTS: There were 2 cases of focal choreic dyskinesias, 1 of right hemichorea, and 2 of generalized chorea. Onset was acute and febrile in 1 case, and subacute in the other 4. In 1 patient the chorea was the AIDS onset symptom; in another choreic movements were the first neurological symptom following AIDS diagnosis; in 2 patients AIDS had a neurological onset other than chorea; and in the fifth patient buccofacial dyskinesias appeared following the development of bacterial encephalitis. CONCLUSION: chorea was associated with cerebral toxoplasmosis in 2 patients, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in 1, subacute hiv encephalopathy in another, and was probably iatrogenic in the last. chorea is not unusual in AIDS, however the causes are variable and careful neuroradiological and clinical evaluation is required to identify them. AIDS-related disease should be considered in young patients presenting with chorea without a family history of movement disorders.
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ranking = 0.18157925743021
keywords = dyskinesia
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8/83. Thalamic stimulation for choreiform movement disorders in children. Report of two cases.

    Surgery for movement disorders is most commonly performed in patients with dyskinesia and tremor associated with Parkinson's disease or in those with essential tremor. The role of ablative surgery or deep brain stimulation in patients with choreiform movements is poorly defined. The authors placed thalamic stimulation systems in two children with disabling choreiform disorders due to intracerebral hemorrhage or cerebral palsy. Each patient displayed choreiform movements in the upper extremities both at rest and with intention, which interfered with daily activities and socialization. Both children obtained significant improvement in their choreiform movements, and their upper extremity function improved with no incidence of morbidity. Thalamic stimulation appears to be a promising and nonablative approach for children with choreiform movement disorders.
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ranking = 0.090789628715105
keywords = dyskinesia
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9/83. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: clinical features and investigation of pathophysiology in a large family.

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is an unusual hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by attacks of chorea, dystonia, and ballism with onset in childhood. We report a large British family with dominantly inherited PDC linked to chromosome 2q and describe the clinical features in 20 affected family members. Attacks were precipitated by a variety of factors, including caffeine, alcohol, or emotion, and could be relieved by short periods of sleep in most subjects. The clinical features in the family are compared with those of 11 other PDC families in the literature and a core phenotype for PDC suggested. CSF monoamine metabolites measured at baseline and during an attack in one subject were found to increase during the attack. magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain and basal ganglia performed both during and between attacks was normal. Positron emission tomography using the D2 receptor ligand, 11C-raclopride, showed no abnormalities.
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ranking = 0.0011797013003609
keywords = dystonia
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10/83. chorea as a symptom of neuroborreliosis: a case study.

    borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) can cause a large number of neurological symptoms. Although extrapyramidal disturbances are rare (representing less than 2% of all neurological complications), diffuse choreic dyskinesias have been described during the course of mild encephalitis. The data published in the literature suggest that there are clinical and neurological analogies between neuroborreliosis and multiple sclerosis (MS). The presence of specific anti-Bb antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid is a discriminating factor that allows a diagnosis of neuroborreliosis to be made. We describe the case of a patient with lyme disease, characterised by widespread chorea and behavioural disturbances. Emphasis is placed on the atypical onset and evolution, the difficulties encountered in formulating a diagnosis, and the uncertainties concerning the pathophysiology and clinical/neuroradiological correlations of the disease.
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ranking = 0.090789628715105
keywords = dyskinesia
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