Cases reported "Chorea"

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1/279. Serial brain SPECT images in a case of Sydenham chorea.

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological nature of Sydenham chorea (SC) has been presumed to be an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory process. Positron emission tomography in SC has revealed a striatal hypermetabolism that might explain the transient neuronal dysfunction. However, any focal hyperperfusion in the striatum or its related structures has not been demonstrated in previous single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging studies, which raised a concern about the pathogenesis of the striatal hypermetabolism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cerebral perfusion patterns of the subcortical structures by using serial technetium Tc 99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT in a case of SC, which may provide a clue for the pathophysiological mechanisms. DESIGN: A case report and serial SPECT studies. CASE PRESENTATION: A girl aged 4 years 3 months showed severe generalized choreic movements with concomitant signs of acute pharyngitis. Results of a laboratory study taken 7 days after the onset of chorea showed elevated antistreptolysin O titer, c-reactive protein levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Other laboratory data, throat culture, echocardiography, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography did not reveal any abnormalities. Five days after treatment with haloperidol and penicillin, the chorea began to improve slowly, and completely resolved in 2 months. RESULTS: Three serial SPECT images and semiquantitative analysis of cerebral perfusion were obtained. Cerebral perfusion in the striatum and thalamus was markedly increased bilaterally during the stage of active chorea and then returned nearly to its baseline level during the convalescent phase. These cerebral perfusion patterns were concordant with semiquantitative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperperfusion in both the striatum and thalamus in our patient may reflect the subcortical inflammatory processes in SC. The unequivocal SPECT findings in our patient are difficult to reconcile with the negative findings of previous SPECT studies but may suggest the heterogeneity of the perfusion patterns in SC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tic, transient
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2/279. Acute rheumatic fever with three major criteria: polyarthritis, carditis and chorea. A case report.

    An eight-year-old girl is presented with three major criteria of acute rheumatic fever: polyarthritis, carditis and chorea. The diagnosis was confirmed with a history of pharyngitis 15 days prior to admission and with the findings of positive acute phase reactants such as elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and c-reactive protein (CRP), elevated anti-streptolysin-O (ASO) titration, and clinical findings of polyarthritis, carditis and chorea. Patient responded well to salicylate and phenobarbital treatment. The rare association of these three major criteria in acute rheumatic fever is emphasized.
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ranking = 1.9996560143308
keywords = tic
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3/279. Familial essential ("benign") chorea.

    A family is described with essential non-progressive chorea occurring in an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern over four generations. A few families with an apparently similar disorder have been reported previously. This condition is characterized by early childhood onset of chorea which is not progressive and is compatible with a long life. It is not associated with dementia, seizures, rigidity, or ataxia. It is a socially embarrassing condition and may, sometimes, be associated with behavioural problems and learning difficulties. For genetic counselling, it is important to distinguish this disorder from Huntington's disease and other hereditary disorders associated with chorea.
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ranking = 0.33327600238846
keywords = tic
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4/279. acetazolamide relieves concurrent episodic movement disorders encountered in Southern states.

    patients with episodic or paroxysmal movements or postures often are thought to have hysteric or psychosomatic illnesses. Kinesigenic (movement-induced) posturing similarly is usually misinterpreted. This case is notable because of the presence of symptoms of two distinct diseases with similar symptoms and changes from one dystonic posture to another during three different durations of attack. The condition improved with acetazolamide therapy. The effect of acetazolamide on sodium and potassium ionophores is discussed because of new genetic information about these illnesses.
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ranking = 0.66655200477692
keywords = tic
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5/279. Valvular deposition of antiphospholipid antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome: a clue to the origin of the disease.

    In this report we present an unusual case of a 45-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who was hospitalized for mitral valve replacement. In her childhood she presented with mitral stenosis and chorea on which grounds a preliminary diagnosis of rheumatic fever was established. After a quiescent period lasting two decades her disease erupted with mitral stenosis, thromboembolic phenomena, and nephritis. Due to severe malfunctioning of her mitral valve, the patient eventually underwent mitral valve replacement. The antibodies involved in the pathogenesis of our patient's valvular disease were studied by immunohistochemical analysis, applying rabbit polyclonal anti-human IgG and IgM anti-human C3c and anti-idiotypes to a mouse monoclonal naturally occurring polyspecific human monoclonal anti-cardiolipin antibody termed S2.9, and to the 16/6 Id which defines a common Id on anti-dna antibodies in patients with SLE. Immunoperoxidase staining using an anti-idiotype mAb to anti-cardiolipin antibodies demonstrated the deposition of these anti-bodies in the subendothelial layer of the valve. We believe that anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) with SLE was the initial and primary disease in this patient. These findings clearly indicate that APS must be considered in the differential diagnosis of rheumatic fever, particularly in young female patients who present with mitral stenosis and chorea.
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ranking = 0.99982800716538
keywords = tic
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6/279. A family with an atonic variant of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis and hypercalcitoninemia.

    We report a family with an incompletely atonic variant of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). Three members of the family experienced attacks of muscle weakness which resembled the choreoathetotic attacks that occur in PKC in terms of their kinesigenicity and duration, clarity of consciousness during the attacks, good therapeutic response to low doses of phenytoin, and familial transmission, but differed from choreoathetotic attacks in PKC in that they were atonic. All three affected individuals were hypercalcitoninemic.
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ranking = 0.99982800716538
keywords = tic
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7/279. Anticonvulsant-induced dyskinesias: a comparison with dyskinesias induced by neuroleptics.

    anticonvulsants cause dyskinesias more commonly than has been appreciated. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH), carbamazepine, primidone, and phenobarbitone may cause asterixis. DPH, but not other anticonvulsants, may cause orofacial dyskinesias, limb chorea, and dystonia in intoxicated patients. These dyskinesias are similar to those caused by neuroleptic drugs and may be related to dopamine antagonistic properties possessed by DPH.
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ranking = 3.9993120286615
keywords = tic
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8/279. Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis associated with frontotemporal arachnoid cyst--case report.

    A 17-year-old male presented with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC) associated with frontotemporal arachnoid cyst. xenon-133 single photon emission computed tomography detected a slight but equivocal decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in the vicinity of basal ganglia associated with the PKC episodes. PKC continued after surgical removal of the cyst but was well controlled by oral administration of carbamazepine. Whether the pathogenesis of symptomatic PKC was associated with the cortical lesion could not be determined in the present case.
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ranking = 0.66655200477692
keywords = tic
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9/279. blood brain barrier destruction in hyperglycemic chorea in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes.

    A case of hemichorea in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes is reported. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an unusual homogeneous high-intensity area in the corpus striatum. Of interest in the case was the fact that the globus pallidus, which was enhanced with gadolinium at the onset of hemichorea, showed homogeneous high-intensity on a subsequent T1-weighted image. This indicated that blood brain barrier destruction preceded the signal intensity change in the basal ganglia. As far as the authors could determine, this is the first reported case showing such enhancement during the course of diabetic hemichorea.
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ranking = 0.66655200477692
keywords = tic
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10/279. Hemichorea and hemiballism associated with contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    We report on two patients with unilateral hyperkinetic movement disorders associated with contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral basal ganglia lesions. The first patient, a 47-year-old woman, had a low-grade astrocytoma located in the right basal ganglia extending into the subthalamic area and the cerebral peduncle. She presented with left hemiparesis, right hemichorea, and intermittent right-sided tremor at rest. The second patient, a 85-year-old woman, had hypertensive hemorrhage to the right posterior basal ganglia, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the lateral thalamus, and the subthalamic region with accompanying intraventricular bleeding. She developed right-sided transient hemichorea-hemiballism. A videotape illustration of one of the patients is provided. The literature on the rare occurrence of ipsilateral hemichorea-hemiballism is discussed and possible pathomechanisms are reviewed. We postulate that hemiparesis contralateral to basal ganglia lesions might have a conditioning effect on the appearance of ipsilateral dyskinetic movement disorders.
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ranking = 0.66672399761154
keywords = tic, transient
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