Cases reported "Chorea"

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11/279. From off-period dystonia to peak-dose chorea. The clinical spectrum of varying subthalamic nucleus activity.

    The effect of chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on levodopa-induced dyskinaesias was investigated in eight patients with fluctuating Parkinson's disease complicated by functionally disabling off-period dystonia. All of the patients also had severe diphasic and peak-dose chorea, so that it was possible to study the effect of high-frequency stimulation on the different types of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. Off-period fixed dystonia was reduced by 90% and off-period pain by 66%. After acute levodopa challenge, high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced diphasic mobile dystonia by 50% and peak-dose choreic dyskinaesias by 30%. The effect of bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the STN on the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale motor score had the same magnitude as the preoperative effect of levodopa. This allowed the levodopa dose to be reduced by 47%. The combination of reduced medication and continuous high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced the duration of on-period diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias by 52% and the intensity by 68%. Acute high-frequency stimulation of the STN mimics an acute levodopa challenge, concerning both parkinsonism and dyskinaesias, and suppresses off-period dystonia. Increasing the voltage can induce repetitive dystonic dyskinaesias, mimicking diphasic levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. A further increase in voltage leads to a shift from a diphasic-pattern dystonia to a peak-dose pattern choreodystonia. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN also mimics the benefit of levodopa on parkinsonism and improves all kinds of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias to varying degrees. Off-period dystonia, associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the STN is directly affected by stimulation and disappears immediately. The effect of chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN on diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias is more complex and is related directly to the functional inhibition of the STN and indirectly to the replacement of the pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation by continuous functional inhibition of the STN. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN allows a very gradual increase in stimulation parameters with increasing beneficial effect on parkinsonism while reducing the threshold for the elicitation of stimulation-induced dyskinaesias. In parallel with improvement of parkinsonism, the levodopa dose can be gradually decreased. As diphasic dystonic dyskinaesias are improved to a greater degree than peak-dose dyskinaesias, both direct and indirect mechanisms may be involved. Peak-dose choreatic dyskinaesias, associated with little evidence of parkinsonism and thus with low neuronal activity in the STN, are improved, mostly indirectly. Fixed off-period dystonia, mobile diphasic dystonia and peak-dose choreodystonia seem to represent a continuous clinical spectrum reflecting a continuous spectrum of underlying activity patterns of STN neurons.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tic, motor
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12/279. Familial paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: clinical findings in a large Japanese family and genetic linkage to 2q.

    BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is a rare familial movement disorder that has been mapped to chromosome 2q31-36. OBJECTIVE: To study the first Japanese family with PDC clinically and genetically. patients AND methods: We studied a large Japanese family in which at least 17 members in 6 generations have been affected by PDC. We interviewed and examined 26 family members, 8 of whom revealed choreoathetosis-like and dystonialike involuntary movement and 1 of whom revealed no involuntary movement but only muscle stiffness such as the aura of paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC). genetic linkage studies of this family were carried out with polymorphic dna markers. RESULTS: The attacks of involuntary movement or muscle stiffness were precipitated by ovulation, menstruation, emotional stress, or caffeine or alcohol ingestion. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed no abnormalities. clonazepam therapy was effective for reducing the attacks, and ingestion of garlic was believed by patients to be effective for softening the attacks. An affected woman with only muscle stiffness showed remission after hysterectomy for hysteromyoma. This woman also had the disease haplotype and transferred it to her typical PDC-affected daughter. Maximal pairwise logarithm of odds scores exceeding 2.00 were obtained at D2S2250, D2S1242, D2S377, D2S2148, and D2S126. The PDC gene was demonstrated by linkage analyses to be located in a 15.3-centimorgan interval lying between D2S371 and D2S339 based on pairwise and multipoint logarithm of odds scores and obligate recombination events in affected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Linkage of PDC to chromosome 2q32-36 was confirmed in a Japanese family. The clinical characterizations of this family with PDC include that ovulation seems also to be a precipitating factor of the attacks and that hysterectomy seems to be effective for softening the attacks. Although low-dose clonazepam treatment was most effective, garlic use was believed by affected members to be effective for softening the attacks. Furthermore, based on the results of clinical and genetic analyses, we suggest that muscle stiffness without involuntary movement may represent a forme fruste of PDC.
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ranking = 7.9926228623332
keywords = tic
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13/279. Late appearance of acanthocytes during the course of chorea-acanthocytosis.

    A case of chorea-acanthocytosis (CA) syndrome is described. The presence of acanthocytes has usually been considered an important diagnostic marker of CA. However, it is not specific and other neurological diseases have to be considered. In the present report we rule out other diagnostic possibilities and show that the acanthocytes in the peripheral blood smears can appear even later during the course of the disease.
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ranking = 1.9981557155833
keywords = tic
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14/279. chorea as the presenting clinical feature of primary antiphospholipid syndrome in childhood.

    Three patients, aged five to 16 years, developed chorea as the only or main clinical manifestation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. In two cases, complaints were self-limited five to eight months after onset. In one patient, the clinical course was complicated by valvulitis. Under corticosteroid treatment, chorea disappeared and cardiac involvement stabilised. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome is a probably under-recognised differential diagnosis of choreatic syndromes in childhood. Assessment of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant should be an obligatory part of the diagnostic work-up of such patients. early diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome may improve clinical management and prognosis.
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ranking = 4.9953892889583
keywords = tic
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15/279. Familial paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis: an electrophysiologic and genotypic analysis.

    PURPOSE: We report a pedigree of familial paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC) in which five of 18 members are affected. The pathophysiologic basis for PKC is still uncertain; reflex epilepsy versus dysfunction of basal ganglia. We examined (a) whether there were ictal discharges during the attacks, and (b) a linkage between PKC and possible dna markers linked to several familial epileptic or movement disorders. methods: Video-monitoring EEG was performed in two patients with PKC during attacks elicited by movements of the lower extremities. Blood samples for dna studies were obtained from 15 members of the pedigree. Fourteen polymorphic markers on chromosomes 1p, 2q, 6p, 10q, and 20q were genotyped, and two-point lod scores were calculated for each marker under a dominant model. RESULTS: No ictal discharges were found during the attacks in both patients. We could not obtain significant linkage of PKC with any marker examined. CONCLUSIONS: The video-monitoring EEG findings in our cases strongly suggested that the etiology of PKC should be considered distinct from that of reflex epilepsy. However, the patients in this pedigree had experienced generalized convulsions in their infancies; thus we could not deny the possibility of an epileptogenic basis for PKC. There was no strong evidence for a linkage of the gene for PKC with the candidate regions on 1p, 2q, 6p, 10q, or 20q.
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ranking = 0.99907785779165
keywords = tic
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16/279. Syringomyelic dystonia and athetosis.

    Two patients with movement disorders associated with syringomyelia are described, one of whom developed unusual torticollis, and the other had choreoathetoid-dystonic movements of the hand and arm. In each case, the movements resolved with decompression of the syrinx. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms explored.
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ranking = 0.99907785779165
keywords = tic
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17/279. neuroacanthocytosis masquerading as Huntington's disease: CT/MRI findings.

    neuroacanthocytosis (NA) is a rare, degenerative, presumably autosomal-recessive disorder of the nervous system presenting in adulthood and is associated with acanthocytosis of the peripheral blood. The clinical spectrum of NA shares similarities with Huntington's disease (HD), including dyskinetic choreiform movements and degeneration of the caudate nucleus. A woman presented with choreiform movements and was given a presumed diagnosis of HD. neuroimaging studies were consistent with HD. She lacked the genetic marker for HD, and further evaluation revealed acanthocytosis of the peripheral blood. The case illustrates the similarities and differences in the clinical presentations and neuroimaging studies of these two disease entities, emphasizing the need for a careful clinical evaluation.
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ranking = 1.9981557155833
keywords = tic
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18/279. Restricted unilateral Sydenham's chorea: reversible contralateral striatal hypermetabolism demonstrated on single photon emission computed tomographic scanning.

    Sydenham's chorea results from group A streptococcus infection and subsequent generation of antineuronal antibodies directed at the caudate nucleus and putamen. Predominantly bilateral, in up to 30% of cases the chorea can be unilaterally restricted. Imaging studies, both structural (magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography), in patients with bilateral Sydenham's chorea have suggested reversible striatal abnormalities. Two patients with unilateral Sydenham's chorea are presented. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging were normal in both. However, hexamethylpropylenamine oxime single photon emission tomographic (HMPAO SPECT) studies demonstrated hypermetabolism in the contralateral basal ganglia. Resolution of symptoms in one of the patients coincided with normalization of the SPECT scan. Thus, unilateral striatal hypermetabolism appears to underlie the contralateral chorea observed. A SPECT scan probably should be included in the work-up of new-onset chorea.
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ranking = 1.9981557155833
keywords = tic
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19/279. A case of McLeod syndrome with unusually severe myopathy.

    A 51-year-old man developed weakness and muscle atrophy in the legs at the age of 41, later followed by choreiform involuntary movements. Neurological and laboratory examinations revealed severe muscle weakness and atrophy, and areflexia in all the extremities, acanthocytosis and an elevated serum creatine kinase level. Together with these findings, the weak expression of Kell blood group antigens and the absence of the Kx antigen led to a definite diagnosis of McLeod syndrome for his condition. brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked atrophy of the head of the caudate nuclei. Although immunocytochemical analysis of dystrophin in muscle specimens from our patient revealed normal staining, we found prominent fiber size variability, central nuclei, and connective tissue proliferation as well as necrotic and regenerating fibers, which are as a whole compatible with the myopathology of muscular dystrophy. Moreover, muscle computerized tomography of the lower extremities revealed the 'selectivity pattern' characteristically reported in muscular dystrophies including Duchenne type muscular dystrophy. The muscular symptoms and pathology in McLeod syndrome have been reported to be mild, but the present case clearly shows that the muscular features in this condition may be much more severe than previously thought.
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ranking = 2.997233573375
keywords = tic
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20/279. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and movement disorders.

    A series of six patients with movement disorders associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is reported. The AVMs were classified according to the Spetzler-Martin classification as grade V (one patient), grade IV (four patients), and as grade III (one patient). One patient had action-induced hemidystonia caused by a contralateral frontoparietal AVM which compressed the putamen and was supplied partially by enlarged lenticulostriate arteries. Two patients presented with unilateral cortical tremor associated with contralateral high-frontal cortical/subcortical AVMs sparing the basal ganglia. Another patient developed hemidystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism after bleeding of a contralateral temporooccipital AVM and subsequent ischemia. Two patients had focal dystonia after thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage from AVMs. Five patients were operated on. The movement disorder was abolished in one patient postoperatively. Different mechanisms were identified that are relevant for the development of AVM-related movement disorders: mass effect, diaschisis, local parenchymal altered cerebral blood flow, and hemorrhagic or ischemic structural lesions.
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ranking = 3.9963114311666
keywords = tic
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