Cases reported "Chorioamnionitis"

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1/42. Placental candidiasis: report of four cases, one with villitis.

    Four cases of placental candidiasis, an uncommon complication of rupture of the membranes, are presented. In addition to chorioamnionitis, in one of these cases villitis was also observed. Villitis is a rare occurrence in Candida infection and this represents only the second case in the literature. The involvement of villi may be suggestive of blood-borne infection. However, since neither the mother nor the foetus presented any signs of systemic dissemination, the authors suggest a hypothesis of contamination of the villi from foci of chorioamnionitis.
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2/42. chorioamnionitis with intact membranes caused by capnocytophaga sputigena.

    We report a case of chorioamnionitis with intact membranes caused by capnocytophaga sputigena. The pregnant woman was hospitalised in preterm labor without fever, neither tenderness, just regular contractions. In spite of the tocolitic treatment the patient gave birth to a girl at 29 weeks' gestation, weighing 1220 g and transferred to intensive care. The newborn had clinical and biological signs of infections and was initially treated by ampicillin, cephalosporin and metronidazol. capnocytophaga sputigena was found on membranes, cord, amniotic fluid and placenta. It was also identified in maternal endocervix culture. Histologic findings showed a focal chorioamnionitis. This was the fourteenth reported case of infection due to capnocytophaga species occurring in pregnancy. All the cases are reviewed.
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3/42. Management of cervical cerclage after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    The optimal management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in a patient with a cerclage is controversial. The issues are whether the latency period between rupture of membranes and delivery is decreased if the cerclage is removed and whether there is an increased rate of maternal or neonatal infection if the cerclage is kept in place. The data are sparse in directing management of women with prophylactic cerclages placed earlier in their pregnancies who rupture membranes. Latency seems to be increased if the cerclage is kept in place, but maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity is increased also. In women at early gestational ages, keeping the cerclage in place may be warranted until labor ensues. In more advanced gestations, it seems preferable to immediately remove the cerclage upon diagnosis of PPROM.
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4/42. Fatal early onset infection in an extremely low birth weight infant due to morganella morganii.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper reports a case of chorioamnionitis due to morganella morganii in a mother who presented with ruptured membranes at 24 weeks' gestation and was treated with dexamethasone and prophylactic ampicillin. Her premature infant developed severe early onset infection due to the same organism and expired. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical case report of M. morganii infection complicating preterm rupture of membranes is presented. Possible risk factors for maternal and neonatal infection with this organism as well as the therapy of neonatal M. morganii infection are discussed. RESULTS: risk factors in the mother included having a cervical cerclage in place and treatment with dexamethasone and prophylactic ampicillin. The major risk factors in the infant were maternal chorioamnionitis and extreme prematurity. The mother responded to treatment with ampicillin, metronidazole, and gentamicin following delivery and had an uncomplicated recovery. Her infant developed severe early onset M. morganii infection complicated by neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and severe acidosis and expired. Postmortem cultures of pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, and blood were positive despite treatment with gentamicin, an antibiotic to which the organism was sensitive. CONCLUSION: M. morganii may cause serious infection in pregnancy and in the neonatal period. The use of dexamethasone and prophylactic ampicillin may have increased the risk of infection with this ampicillin-resistant organism. The failure of gentamicin to sterilize the infant's blood and body fluids emphasizes the necessity of treating such infections with a combination of an aminoglycoside and a third-generation cephalosporin, such as cefotaxime.
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5/42. Acardiac fetus in a triplet pregnancy: ultrasound pitfalls. A case report.

    This communication aims at illustrating ultrasound diagnostic difficulties in early pregnancy with acardiac fetus. Our case concerns a spontaneously conceived triplet pregnancy. It was diagnosed as a twin pregnancy at 11 weeks of amenorrhea. One and a half months later the patient was referred to our center for spontaneous premature rupture of membranes with the diagnosis of a fetal demise in a triplet pregnancy. The definite diagnosis of acardia was assessed sonographically by the presence of a reverse blood flow through the umbilical cord, reflex movements, limbs anomalies and discordance between femoral and crown-rump length. Two days after admission, the patient developed chorioamnionitis and the three fetuses were expelled.
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6/42. Successful outcome after antibiotic treatment of postamniocentesis membrane rupture and chorioamnionitis in multiple pregnancy.

    Postamniocentesis chorioamnionitis is usually managed with induction of labor to prevent maternal sepsis and related morbidity and mortality. We report a case of chorioamnionitis in a triplet pregnancy after midtrimester genetic amniocentesis, in which multiple antibiotic treatment (ampicillin 2 g i.v. loading dose followed by 1 g i.v. every 6 hr; clindamycin 900 mg i.v. every 8 hr; gentamicin 120 mg i.v. loading dose followed by 100 mg i.v. every 8 hrs; and erythromycin 500 mg i.v. every 6 hr) for 7 days and delivery of the presumably infected triplet A successfully reversed the clinical symptomatology, allowing prolongation of pregnancy until 26 weeks and survival of the remaining fetuses. At age 2 years, both infants are doing well and are meeting their developmental milestones. The viable outcome of this management strategy suggests that antibiotic treatment and expectancy may be an option in selected cases of postamniocentesis chorioamnionitis in multiple pregnancies.
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7/42. Candida chorioamnionitis after serial therapeutic amniocenteses: a possible association.

    BACKGROUND: Reduction amniocentesis is used in cases of severe polyhydramnios to decrease maternal discomfort and the risk of preterm labor. In a medline search (1966 to present, English language, keywords: amniocentesis, chorioamnionitis), no report of Candida chorioamnionitis after serial reduction amniocentesis exists. CASE: A 29-year-old primigravida with a history of four therapeutic amniocenteses for idiopathic polyhydramnios developed preterm labor at 30 and 5/7 weeks' gestation, rupture of membranes, and candida albicans chorioamnionitis. Despite aggressive therapy with amphotericin b, the neonate succumbed to overwhelming systemic candidiasis. CONCLUSION: Serial amniocentesis may place patients at elevated risk for Candida chorioamnionitis and subsequent preterm delivery. Clinicians should consider early diagnostic amniocentesis in patients in preterm labor with a history of prior amniocentesis, and the routine Gram stain and culture of amniotic fluid.
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8/42. campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus bacteremia associated with chorioamnionitis and intact fetal membranes.

    campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus was isolated from the blood of a patient with chorioamnionitis and intact fetal membranes. The mother improved after appropriate antibiotic treatment, but the infant died of neonatal infection a few minutes after delivery. This is a very unusual etiology of intra-amniotic infection.
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9/42. Preventing recurrent second trimester group B streptococcus chorioamnionitis by intermittent prophylactic ampicillin.

    BACKGROUND: Whereas carrying group B streptococcus during pregnancy is common, second trimester group B streptococcus chorioamnionitis with intact membranes is rare, and recurrence of the latter problem even more so. CASE: A 38-year-old multipara with a history of recurrent second trimester group B streptococcus chorioamnionitis resulting in pregnancy loss was treated, beginning at 14 weeks' gestation, with monthly prophylactic ampicillin therapy throughout pregnancy and delivered a healthy male infant at term. CONCLUSION: In women with recurrent pregnancy loss due to second trimester group B streptococcus chorioamnionitis, an intermittent prophylactic antibiotic regimen throughout pregnancy might increase the probability of successful pregnancy.
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10/42. Spontaneous prolonged hypertonic uterine contractions (essential uterine hypertonus) and a possible infective etiology.

    The management of a pregnant woman presenting with prolonged hypertonic uterine contractions (essential uterine hypertonus) and mildly elevated temperature at term is described. histology of the placenta, cord and membranes, following delivery, revealed evidence of chorioamnionitis, funisitis and deciduitis. Our findings raise the possibility that essential uterine hypertonus may have an infective or inflammatory component to its etiology.
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