Cases reported "Choristoma"

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1/88. Characterization of nodular neuronal heterotopia in children.

    Neuronal heterotopia are seen in various pathologies and are associated with intractable epilepsy. We examined brain tissue from four children with subcortical or periventricular nodular heterotopia of different aetiologies: one with severe epilepsy following focal brain trauma at 17 weeks gestation, one with hemimegalencephaly and intractable epilepsy, one with focal cortical dysplasia and intractable epilepsy, and one dysmorphic term infant with associated hydrocephalus and polymicrogyria. The connectivity of nodules was investigated using histological and carbocyanine dye (DiI) tracing techniques. DiI crystal placement adjacent to heterotopic nodules revealed numerous DiI-labelled fibres within a 2-3 mm radius of the crystals. Although we observed labelled fibres closely surrounding nodules, the majority did not penetrate them. Placement of DiI crystals within nodules also identified a limited number of projections out of the nodules and in one case there was evidence for connectivity between adjacent nodules. The cellular and neurochemical composition of nodules was also examined using immunohistochemistry for calretinin and neuropeptide y (NPY), which are normally expressed in GABAergic cortical interneurons. Within heterotopic nodules from all cases, numerous calretinin-positive neurons were identified, along with a few cell bodies and many processes positive for NPY. Calretinin-positive neurons within nodules were less morphologically complex than those in the cortex, which may reflect incomplete differentiation into an inhibitory neuronal phenotype. There were also abnormal clusters of calretinin-positive cells in the overlying cortical plate, indicating that the migratory defect which produces heterotopic nodules also affects development of the cortex itself. Thus, heterotopic nodules consisting of multiple neuronal cell types are associated with malformation in the overlying cortical plate, and have limited connectivity with other brain regions. This abnormal development of connectivity may affect neuronal maturation and consequently the balance of excitation and inhibition in neuronal circuits, leading to their epileptogenic potential.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
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2/88. Treatment of seizures in subcortical laminar heterotopia with corpus callosotomy and lamotrigine.

    Focal and generalized cortical dysgeneses are sometimes seen on the magnetic resonance images (MRI) of patients with epilepsy. Subcortical laminar heterotopia are bilateral collections of gray matter in the centrum semiovale that resemble a band or "double cortex" on MRI. We studied one male and two female patients with subcortical laminar heterotopia who had moderate to severe developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy, and medically refractory seizures. Atonic, atypical absence, tonic, myoclonic, complex partial, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures were recorded. Interictal and ictal electroencephalographic patterns were generalized and, less commonly, multifocal. Two years after corpus callosotomy, one patient was free of generalized tonic-clonic and atonic seizures, but the other patient who had undergone callosotomy had no significant reduction in seizure frequency. With lamotrigine treatment, the patient who had not had surgery had complete cessation of monthly episodes of status epilepticus and a dramatic reduction of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and the other patient who received lamotrigine had a 50% reduction of her atonic seizures. In patients with subcortical laminar heterotopia, atonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures can be substantially reduced or eliminated by corpus callosotomy or treatment with lamotrigine.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cortex
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3/88. Functional imaging in periventricular nodular heterotopia with the use of FDG-PET and HMPAO-SPECT.

    We analyzed the interictal [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FGD-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT) in two epileptic patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH). In both cases, we found both the glucose metabolism and the perfusion of PNH to be almost identical to those of the normal cerebral cortex. The metabolic activity and perfusion in the heterotopic gray matter in a subependymal white matter area probably represent the glucose metabolism and perfusion of the abnormally located gray matter rather than a subclinical ictal phenomenon. FDG-PET and HMPAO-SPECT were thus found to be a useful complement to magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of PNH.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cortex
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4/88. Functional imaging in schizencephaly using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT).

    We analyzed interictal [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FGD-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT) in a 23-year-old female with schizencephaly. She had epilepsy and mild left hemiparesis, but was otherwise developmentally normal. We found the glucose metabolism and perfusion of the wall of the schizencephalic cleft to be identical to those of normal cerebral cortex. The wall of the transcerebral clefts, which were observed to be lined by abnormally organized gray matter as a result of a migration disorder, demonstrated gray matter metabolic activity and perfusion. FDG-PET and HMPAO-SPECT were thus found to be a useful complement to magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating schizencephaly.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cortex
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5/88. Pitfall of the accessory spleen.

    Two patients, one with insulinoma and one with Cushing's syndrome, are presented. Biochemical evaluation readily suggested the correct diagnosis. During radiologic imaging, the anatomic abnormality giving rise to these diseases, i.e. a pancreatic islet cell tumor, and an adrenal adenoma, at first were mistakenly interpreted as an accessory spleen on the basis of specific computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearances. The insulinoma was identified as such during laparotomy, whereas additional jodo-cholesterol scintigraphy revealed the real nature of the lesion in the patient with Cushing's syndrome. Both patients were operated successfully.
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ranking = 2.2942033264564
keywords = adrenal
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6/88. Functional MRI in double cortex: functionality of heterotopia.

    ARTICLE ABSTRACT: A 12-year-old boy with epilepsy and subcortical laminar heterotopia (band heterotopia) underwent a functional MRI protocol to study voluntary motor activity in the hand. Finger tapping produced an activation of a contralateral limited and focused frontal cortical area both in the subcortical band heterotopia and the overlying cortex. Despite its epileptogenic activity, subcortical laminar heterotopia seems to be responsible for part of the functional activity of the brain. This has to be pointed out for epilepsy surgery resecting cortical dysplasia.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = cortex
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7/88. Adrenal tissue in the placenta: a heterotopia caused by migration and embolism?

    Heterotopic adrenal tissue is not uncommon, especially in the urogenital system. Adrenocortical tissue in the placenta, however, is presumably very rare. To our knowledge, four cases have been published. There are several different theories to explain such a heterotopia. According to our findings, an embolic spread of adrenal precursor cells via fetal vascular shortcuts is the most likely mechanism. Apart from that hypothesis, the possibility of a monodermal teratoma as well as of an aberrant differentiation of cells of the extraembryonic mesoderm are considered in the literature.
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ranking = 4.5884066529129
keywords = adrenal
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8/88. Ectopic adrenals in a sirenomelic fetus.

    A sirenomelic malformation was diagnosed in a fetus from the first pregnancy of a 25-year-old woman, and it was aborted at the 24th week of gestation. The fetus represented a sympus monopus. The head, organs of the neck, the thorax, and the upper part of abdominal cavity were normally formed. The kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra were not developed. Adrenals of discoid shape and normal size were present in the normal position. The large bowel ended blindly in the sigmoid colon. Both testes were found in their normal position in the pelvis. Two symmetrical structures, resembling ovaries in shape and colour, were found near the testes. Histological examination established that these two organs were accessory (aberrant) adrenals.
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ranking = 11.471016632282
keywords = adrenal
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9/88. Corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenal adenoma.

    Although nonsecreting suprarenal embryonic remnants are frequently found in the urogenital tract, adenomatous transformation resulting in glucocorticoid excess is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 63-yr-old woman that presented with new-onset hirsutism, facial plethora, hypertension, centripetal obesity, and a proximal myopathy. The 24-h urinary free cortisol excretion rate was elevated, and the serum ACTH level was suppressed. The patient failed an overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test and did not respond to CRH stimulation. In light of the undetectable baseline morning ACTH levels and the blunt response to CRH, the diagnosis of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome was made. Imaging studies revealed normal adrenal glands and enlargement of a left pararenal nodule incidentally observed 4 yr before the onset of symptoms. Dramatic resolution of symptoms was observed after surgical removal of the 3.5-cm mass. Pathological exam confirmed adrenocortical adenoma in ectopic adrenal tissue. The case reported here represents the unusual circumstance in which the development of adenomatous transformation of ectopic adrenal tissue has been prospectively observed with imaging studies. It illustrates the importance of considering ectopic corticosteroid-secreting tumors in the context of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
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ranking = 16.059423285195
keywords = adrenal
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10/88. Ectopic localisation of adrenal cortex.

    We present a case of concurrence of ectopic adrenal cortex with a renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of the accessory adrenal tissue was made by CT-guided biopsy. With this case report, we draw attention to a specific differential diagnostic problem, policy and to the MR characteristics of ectopic adrenal cortex.
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ranking = 457.69259754141
keywords = adrenal cortex, adrenal, cortex
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