Cases reported "Choristoma"

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11/108. lingual thyroid--a threat to the airway.

    The occurrence of a thyroid gland superficially placed on the pharyngeal portion of the tongue is rare, but poses problems to the patient and anaesthetist. This report describes a patient with a lingual thyroid and a history of problems associated with it that resulted in admission to the ICU and warnings about future intubation of the larynx. The patient underwent awake tracheal intubation using a standard fibreoptic assisted technique, and was advised that she purchase an appropriate Medic-Alert bracelet.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway
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12/108. intestinal obstruction caused by an ectopic fallopian tube in a child: case report and literature review.

    The authors present the case of a prepubertal 14-year-old girl who was admitted for an acute abdominal pain, fever, and vomiting. She was in a poor general state, having recently suffered a weight loss of 5 kg. A plain abdominal x-ray disclosed signs of mechanical ileus. An abdominal ultrasound scan showed a normal uterus, a normal right-sided ovary, but no left ovary. An emergency laparoscopy found a normal uterus with complete absence of the left ovary and salpinx, the upper left dome of the uterus being smooth with no visible horn. The right ovary and salpinx were normal. intestinal obstruction was caused by a strangulating cordlike structure of unclear origin. After converting to a laparotomy, we found an abnormal fallopian tube inserted in the left parieto-colic groove. The tube extended next on the lateral sigmoid mesentery and wrapped itself around the ileum, provoking a local strangulation and an ischemic covered bowel perforation. The bowel perforation was treated by a segmental bowel resection. Careful dissection of the cordlike structure disclosed a true rudimentary fallopian tube with hypotrophic fimbriae and a small distal round structure containing ovarian tissue. These structures were removed entirely. A review of the literature on this rare situation is presented and discussed.
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ranking = 7.9387072187448
keywords = obstruction
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13/108. Pancreatic heterotopia and other uncommon causes of non-malignant biliary obstruction.

    The vast majority of patients developing obstructive jaundice will have an underlying malignancy. When the etiology of the obstruction cannot be defined prior to operative intervention, identification of a non-malignant process will occur only subsequent to a major operation. The clinical course of a patient with complete distal common bile duct obstruction as the result of pancreatic heterotopia is discussed. This uncommon diagnosis prompted a review of the literature on this subject enabling this detailed discussion inclusive of the embryology, prevalence and clinical presentations of this entity. Our review further identified a varied group of other non-malignant causes of biliary obstruction that may be mistakenly interpreted to represent biliary or pancreatic malignancy.
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ranking = 11.114190106243
keywords = obstruction
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14/108. lingual thyroid: iodine 131: a viable treatment modality revisited.

    PURPOSE: lingual thyroid has a reported incidence between 1:10 and 1:100,000. When symptomatic, patients may present with dysphagia, choking, and/or dyspnea. Current surgical treatment options range from tumor extirpation or transposition to excision and reimplantation. Tracheotomies are often performed postoperatively for reliable airway control. iodine 131 (131I) has not been a popular modality of treatment for lingual thyroid because of theoretical fears of increased airway obstruction from thyroiditis. We believe that these fears were not substantiated, and that symptomatic patients needed a reliable, nonsurgical treatment option. Therefore, our goal was to further investigate the use of 131I for the treatment of symptomatic lingual thyroid. patients AND methods: A 6-year retrospective chart review was performed. From 1994 to 2000, 2 patients with symptomatic lingual thyroid presented to the arkansas Cancer research Center head and neck Oncology clinic, University of arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR. patients underwent pretreatment computed tomography, and iodine 123 scans. They then received 1 oral dose of 131I. Doses ranged from 30 to 85 mCi. patients were then followed daily for signs of airway compromise. RESULTS: Complete resolution of symptoms was seen 2 months after treatment. patients did not complain of any increased airway compromise during treatment initiation. patients remain symptom-free and are maintained on thyroid hormone replacement. CONCLUSIONS: iodine 131 ablation of lingual thyroid is a safe and effective treatment in symptomatic patients and should be included in the algorithm when formulating a treatment plan.
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ranking = 12.035888970332
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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15/108. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue causing airway obstruction in the newborn.

    BACKGROUND: Heterotopic neuroglial (brain) tissue is a rare cause of airway obstruction in newborns. Fewer than 30 cases have been reported in the English literature. brain heterotopias can mimic more common congenital anomalies of the head and neck. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of children with heterotopic pharyngeal neuroglial tissue. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. patients: Four newborns with airway obstruction caused by heterotopic neuroglial tissue. RESULTS: All patients were infants (3 full-term girls and a 32 weeks' gestation boy) who had airway obstruction in the newborn period. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a heterogeneous mass involving the pharynx, neck, and parapharyngeal space. Bony deformities of the skull base and mandible were present in all patients, although intracranial connection was absent. Multiple surgical procedures were performed in all 4 patients. tracheotomy was performed in 2 patients, gastrostomy tube placement was required in 3, and a nasopharyngeal tube was used in 1. Combined cervicofacial and transoral approaches were used for resection, preserving vital structures. Histopathologic evaluation revealed mature glial tissue and choroid plexus-like structures. CONCLUSIONS: Heterotopic neuroglial tissue must be considered in the differential diagnosis of airway obstruction in the newborn. Management is surgical resection, with attention to vital structures and function-analogous to surgery for lymphangioma. Multiple surgical procedures might be necessary in the treatment of these patients.
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ranking = 90.287111762652
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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16/108. Heterotopy of thyroid tissue--a modified therapeutical approach.

    OBJECTIVES: The authors describe the classification of heterotopic thyroid tissue. A survey of more than 600 literature cases is provided. Different therapy approaches for these anomalies are discussed. Data from seven subsequent cases have been added to the existing literature data. The authors present an alternative approach to the therapy of heterotopic thyroid tissue. MATERIALS AND methods: The records of seven patients treated for a heterotopy of the thyroid tissue as the Department of ENT and head and neck Surgery of First Medical school of the Charles University of Prague since 1.1.1991 to 1.1.2001 have been analyzed. RESULTS: The first group: No surgery. This approach was used for children. In these patients the heterotopic thyroid tissue is the only thyroid tissue they have, but its function is not damaged and there are no mechanical symptoms (no airway obstruction and dysphagia). TSH substitution-suppression therapy is necessary for this group. Cooperation and follow up by the endocrinology, otolaryngology and pediatric departments is necessary. At a later age these patients can be treated as in the second group. The second group: Surgery. All patients in this group had heterotopic thyroid tissue. The total removal of thyroid tissue has been preferred. Carcinomatous change or the development of mechanical syndrome, dysphagia or airway obstruction is possible. Total removal is the best surgical approach. Various surgical methods are described in the literature (CO2 laser, intraoral, mandibulotomy, middle hyotomy etc.). These patients are treated as after total thyroidectomy and substitution therapy with synthetic thyroid hormones is necessary. The authors describe and add seven cases to the literature data. The authors describe radical removal of aberrant and accessory tissue [corrected].
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ranking = 22.571777940663
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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17/108. Retropharyngeal aberrant thymus.

    INTRODUCTION: Upper airway obstruction from a retropharyngeal mass requires urgent evaluation. In children, the differential diagnosis includes infection, trauma, neoplasm, and congenital abnormalities. Aberrant cervical thymic tissue, although occasionally observed on autopsy examination, is rarely clinically significant. We present the case of an infant with respiratory distress attributed to aberrant thymic tissue located in the retropharyngeal space. CASE: A 6-week-old infant was brought to the emergency department for evaluation of stridor associated with periodic episodes of cyanosis. Lateral neck radiograph revealed widening of the retropharyngeal soft tissues. The patient's symptoms did not improve with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed on the seventh day of hospitalization revealed a retropharyngeal mass that extended to the carotid space. The mass was easily resected using an intraoral approach. Microscopic examination demonstrated thymic tissue. A normal thymus was also observed in the anterior mediastinum on MRI. The patient recovered uneventfully and had no further episodes of stridor or cyanosis. DISCUSSION: Aberrant cervical thymic tissue may be cystic or solid. Cystic cervical thymus is more common, and 6% of these patients present with symptoms of dyspnea or dysphagia. Aberrant solid cervical thymus usually presents as an asymptomatic anterior neck mass. This case is unusual in that solid thymic tissue was located in the retropharynx, a finding not previously reported in the English literature. Additionally, the patient presented in acute respiratory distress, and the diagnosis was confounded by the presence of mild laryngomalacia. In retrospect, our patient likely had symptoms of intermittent upper airway obstruction since birth. The acute respiratory distress at presentation was likely the result of laryngomalacia exacerbated by the presence of aberrant thymic tissue and a superimposed viral infection. Aberrantly located thymic tissue arises as a consequence of migrational defects during thymic embryogenesis. The thymus is a paired organ derived from the third and, to a lesser extent, fourth pharyngeal pouches. After its appearance during the sixth week of fetal life, it descends to a final position in the anterior mediastinum, adjacent to the parietal pericardium. Aberrant thymic tissue results when this tissue breaks free from the thymus as it migrates caudally. Therefore, aberrant thymic tissue may be found in any position along a line from the angle of the mandible to the sternal notch, and in the anterior mediastinum to the level of the diaphragm. In an autopsy study of 3236 children, abnormally positioned thymic tissue was found in 34 cases (1%). The aberrant thymus was most often located near the thyroid gland (n = 19 cases) but was also detected lower in the anterior neck (n = 6 cases), higher in the anterior neck (n = 8 cases), and at the left base of the skull (n = 1 case). The presence of thymic tissue in the retropharyngeal space in our patient is more unusual given the typical embryologic origin and descent of the thymus in the anterior neck to the mediastinum. Children with aberrant thymus may have associated anomalies. Twenty-four of 34 children (71%) with aberrant thymus detected at autopsy had features consistent with digeorge syndrome, and only 5 of the remaining 10 patients had a normal mediastinal thymus present. Our patient had normal serum calcium levels after excision and a mediastinal thymus was visualized on MRI. Biospy is required for diagnosis of cervical thymus and should also be considered to exclude other causes. MRI is helpful in delineating the presence, position, and extent of thymic tissue. Immunologic sequelae or recurrence after resection of an aberrant cervical thymus has not been reported.
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ranking = 22.571777940663
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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18/108. Giant ileal duplication with extensive gastric heterotopia.

    A rare case of ileal duplication in a 6-year-old boy is presented. The duplicated area is just like an additional ectopic stomach both in radiologic and pathologic examination. The patient was operated on because of intestinal obstruction.
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ranking = 1.587741443749
keywords = obstruction
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19/108. A rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction in the newborn: Pyloric ectopic pancreas.

    This report describes a case of symptomatic pyloric ectopic pancreas simulating infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in an 1-month-old boy. There are few cases reported in the English-language literature with the same clinical presentation during the neonatal period. Rarely is the entity symptomatic, and it should be kept in mind in differential diagnosis of nonbilious vomiting, especially in neonates. The ectopic pancreas should be removed because of the late complications when found incidentally.
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ranking = 6.3509657749958
keywords = obstruction
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20/108. Heterotopic pancreatitis: gastric outlet obstruction due to an intramural pseudocyst and hamartoma.

    Heterotopic pancreas, usually a silent gastrointestinal malformation, may become clinically evident when complicated by chronic inflammation. We report a case of pancreatitis and extensive pseudocyst formation in the gastric antrum, which caused gastric outlet obstruction. The diagnosis was obscured by a history of emesis during pregnancy and a previously resected gastric polyp. The nature of the obstructive lesion was not diagnosed preoperatively in spite of endosonographic evaluation. Intraoperatively, a cystic tumor of the stomach wall was found, the lesion was excised, and a pyloroplasty was performed to close the excision site. histology revealed heterotopic pancreatic tissue with chronic inflammation, fibrosis and pseudocyst formation and adjacent to this lesion a myoglandular hamartoma. The patient is symptom-free two years after surgery and no recurrence was found. The nature of heterotopic pancreatic tissue, its diagnosis and management are discussed.
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ranking = 7.9387072187448
keywords = obstruction
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