Cases reported "Choroid Diseases"

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1/378. Silent occult choroidal vascular abnormalities.

    PURPOSE: To describe clinically occult choroidal vascular abnormalities that can be revealed by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. methods: Out of approximately 2,700 patients who underwent ICG angiography, a lesion was incidentally observed in eight eyes of eight patients. In five patients, the ICG study included a second examination taken during artificially induced intraocular hypertension. Examinations were repeated in six patients over a follow-up period ranging from 4 months to 3 years. RESULTS: On ICG angiogram, the choroidal vasculopathy appeared as a round-oval hyperfluorescent area 2-4 disk diameters in size that was located at the temporal vascular arcades in six eyes, at the inferomacular region in one eye, and above the optic disk in one eye. The lesions were not identifiable with funduscopic, fluorescein angiographic, or ultrasonographic examination. The lesions filled at the same time as the choroidal arteries and lost fluorescence in mid-late phase of the ICG angiogram. The ICG series taken during induced intraocular hypertension showed the hyperfluorescent areas originated from choroidal arterial abnormalities giving rise to confluent hyperfluorescent patches. Draining vessels connecting the choroidal vasculopathy with a vortex vein were evidenced in three eyes. A sector of apparent choroidal hypoperfusion downstream from the lesion was present in three eyes. During the follow-up period, the lesions remained occult and with an unchanged ICG angiographic pattern in all patients. CONCLUSION: Some silent occult choroidal vascular abnormalities may be incidentally revealed by ICG angiography. These must be distinguished from ICG imaging of concomitant chorioretinal disorders. ( info)

2/378. Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    PURPOSE: To document and study the cross-sectional structures of polypoidal elements using optical coherence tomography in eyes with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. methods: Optical coherence tomography images of two eyes with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were correlated with slit-lamp biomicroscopic findings, fundus photographs, fluorescein angiograms, and indocyanine green angiograms. RESULTS: Cross-sectional optical coherence tomographic images of retinochoroidal structures showed prominent anterior protrusion of the orange subretinal mass corresponding to the polypoidal structure in the indocyanine green angiogram. Hemorrhagic detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium was contiguous with the cone-shaped nodule beneath the retinal pigment epithelium in one eye, and an apparent discontinuity was observed in the highly reflective layer that delineates the polypoidal structure. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the polypoidal structures in eyes with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are anteriorly protruding lesions in the inner choroid that may cause serosanguineous detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium through damage of the overlying bruch membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and the adhesion between them. Cross-sectional optical coherence tomographic images may increase understanding of the pathophysiology of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. ( info)

3/378. central serous chorioretinopathy and hiv.

    BACKGROUND: patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) have sudden-onset, painless, uniocular blur that is typically diagnosed via fundus and fluorescein angiographic appearance. The etiology and pathophysiology are not fully understood; however, there may be an association with an infectious etiology. This article presents two cases of hiv-positive patients in whom central serous chorioretinopathy developed and discusses the possible relationship between the two cases. The differential diagnosis, clinical features, angiographic appearance, management options, and proposed etiologies of CSC will be presented. case reports: A 34-year-old black man hiv reported to the eye clinic with decreased vision in his right eye. A diagnosis of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) was made on the basis of the clinical and fluorescein appearance. He is currently being monitored for resolution. A 44-year-old black man with profoundly compromised immunity also came to the eye clinic with CSC and hiv retinopathy. He later progressed to CMV retinitis and subsequently died. CONCLUSION: Although considered in many cases to be idiopathic, central serous chorioretinopathy has been associated with infectious etiologies, one of which could be hiv. ( info)

4/378. Surgical treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    PURPOSE: To report the visual outcome of surgical treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. methods: Eight eyes of eight consecutive patients with thick submacular hemorrhages associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and tissue plasminogen activator-assisted removal of subretinal blood (December 1995 to September 1997) or intravitreal 100% sulfur hexafluoride gas injection without tissue plasminogen activator (October 1997 to March 1998). RESULTS: Postoperatively, laser treatment was performed for active polypoidal lesions outside the foveal avascular zone in four eyes. A retinal pigment epithelial tear was seen outside the foveal avascular zone in three eyes, and one eye developed a retinal detachment. The best-corrected visual acuity improved (by 3 or more lines) or stabilized in seven of the eight eyes. Four eyes had a final best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and three eyes had a final best-corrected visual acuity of 20/50 to 20/200. In one eye, the visual acuity decreased from 20/100 to 20/500 because of the development of a subfoveal neovascular membrane. The membrane was excised, and histologic examination showed fibrovascular tissue between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (type 2 pattern). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical intervention may be of benefit in eyes with submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. ( info)

5/378. Das multifokale elektroretinogramm in der diagnostik und verlaufskontrolle lokalisierter Netzhautfunktionsstorungen: fallbericht eines patienten mit chorioretinopathia centralis serosa.

    The role of multifocal electroretinography (MF-ERG) in the diagnosis and follow-up of localized areas of retinal dysfunction is discussed. A 42-year-old male with the preliminary diagnosis of optic neuritis in his left eye was referred for evaluation with the MF-ERG. Simultaneous cone ERGs were obtained from 103 locations within the central 50 degrees of the retina. During an 8-month follow-up four MF-ERGs were obtained. Bilaterally reduced paracentral response amplitudes contradicted the preliminary diagnosis. Subsequently central serous chorioretinopathy was diagnosed. Follow-up showed normalization of the MF-ERG responses in the left eye while retinal function in the right eye showed initial worsening. The noninvasive MF-ERG lends itself to follow-up in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. ( info)

6/378. Multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis and punctate inner choroidopathy: a mini review.

    Multifocal choroiditis and punctate inner choroidopathy cause scattered acute chorioretinal lesions in the fundus. Secondary choroidal neovascularization and, more rarely, diffuse subretinal fibrosis without obvious neovascularization are associated with both syndromes and cause severe visual loss. Both disorders are of unknown etiology and have many similarities. It is our purpose to present four such cases with emphasis on their fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographic appearance. We review shortly the literature on the subject. ( info)

7/378. Sclerotomy in uveal effusion syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report visual and anatomic outcomes after modified scleral surgery in patients with uveal effusion syndrome with retinal and choroidal detachment. methods: In five eyes of four patients with retinal and choroidal detachment and uveal effusion syndrome due to nanophthalmos, we performed pars plana full-thickness unsutured sclerotomies without sclerectomy. RESULTS: In all cases, uveal effusion with choroidal and retinal detachment resolved within 3 weeks, and all patients showed improved vision. The functional and anatomic results remained stable for over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Uveal effusion syndrome that is refractory to medical treatment (high-dose systemic corticosteroids) can be managed effectively by pars plana full-thickness unsutured sclerotomy without sclerectomy. ( info)

8/378. Sclerochoroidal calcification associated with gitelman syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To investigate sclerochoroidal calcification in a patient with Gitelman syndrome. METHOD: Case report. Bilateral fundus abnormalities observed in a 58-year-old woman were documented with fluorescein angiography and tomodensitometry. RESULTS: Symmetric yellow-white subretinal lesions were observed in the superotemporal midperiphery of the fundus of each eye. Tomodensitometry examination was consistent with calcium deposition. The medical history included gitelman syndrome. Sclerochoroidal calcification probably resulted from the severe hypomagnesemia. CONCLUSION: gitelman syndrome may be a cause of sclerochoroidal calcification. ( info)

9/378. microcephaly with normal intelligence, and chorioretinopathy.

    An 18-year-old girl had microcephaly without mental or neurological disabilities. She had hypoplastic mandible, long cup-shaped ears, bilateral incurved little fingers, bilateral retinal pigmentation, and scattered areas of depigmentation as well as a history of osteochondroma. However, genetic test for mutation analysis of exon 15 of the APC gene showed negative results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case to be reported with microcephaly, normal intelligence, and bilateral congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE). ( info)

10/378. indocyanine green angiographic features of choroidal rupture and choroidal vascular injury after contusion ocular injury.

    PURPOSE: To report features of choroidal rupture and choroidal vascular injury after contusion ocular injury on indocyanine green angiography. methods: In a prospective study, nine patients (nine eyes) with choroidal rupture after ocular contusion underwent initial fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography within 19 days after trauma. Eyes that had a distinct abnormality of the retinal pigment epithelium were excluded from this study. Subtraction indocyanine green angiography was also performed. Follow-up fluorescein angiographic and indocyanine green angiographic findings were also studied. RESULTS: Initial ophthalmoscopic examination revealed subretinal hemorrhage in all nine eyes. In five of the nine eyes, choroidal rupture was not seen on initial ophthalmoscopic or fluorescein angiographic examination because it was hidden beneath the subretinal hemorrhage, but it was detected on subsequent examinations. In the remaining four eyes, choroidal rupture was observed by ophthalmoscopy at the time of initial examination, and these eyes exhibited hyperfluorescent streaks on fluorescein angiography in the region of the subretinal hemorrhage. On initial indocyanine green angiography of all nine eyes, observed hypofluorescent streaks became more obvious with time. For each eye, there were more hypofluorescent streaks on indocyanine green angiography than hyperfluorescent streaks on fluorescein angiography. In one eye, the location of indocyanine green leakage nearly coincided with the location of a hyperfluorescent streak on fluorescein angiography. In this case, crescentic streaks of hypofluorescence were seen on the temporal side of the subretinal hemorrhage on indocyanine green angiography, although choroidal rupture was not observed in that region by ophthalmoscopy or fluorescein angiography. In two of the nine eyes, indocyanine green angiography and the subtraction technique demonstrated disturbance of flow into choroidal vessels, especially at the choroidal rupture site. CONCLUSION: After ocular contusion injury, various features of choroidal rupture and choroidal vascular injury were observed on indocyanine green angiography. This technique may contribute to the diagnosis of choroidal rupture and to the understanding of the clinical course after injury. ( info)
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