Cases reported "Chromosomal Instability"

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1/2. chromosomal instability and double minute chromosomes in a breast cancer patient.

    cytogenetic analysis was performed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a woman with ductal breast carcinoma, who as a hospital employee was exposed professionally for 15 years to low doses of ionizing radiation. The most important finding after the chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy was the presence of double minutes (DM) chromosomes, in combination with other chromosomal abnormalities (on 200 scored metaphases were found 2 chromatid breaks, 10 dicentrics, 11 acentric fragments, 2 gaps, and 3 double min chromosomes). In a repeated analysis (after 6 months), DM chromosomes were still present. To rule out the possibility that the patient was overexposed to ionizing radiation at work, her blood test was compared with a group of coworkers as well as with a group of professionally unexposed people. The data rejected this possibility, but the retroactive analysis showed that the patient even at the time of employment had a moderately increased number of chromosomal aberrations (3.5%) consisting of 3 isochromatids and 4 gaps, suggesting that her initial genomic instability enhanced the later development. The finding of a continuous presence of rare DM chromosomes in her PBL (4 and 10 months after radiochemotherapy) was considered as an indicator of additional risk, which might have some prognostic significance.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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2/2. Six novel heterozygous MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 and one homozygous MLH1 germline mutations in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

    Most hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) cases are caused by germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes (i.e., MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6). Here we describe six novel mutations in patients referred for genetic assessment. All of these mutations lead to premature translation termination. Five single base pair deletions lead to frameshift (MLH1: g.38-39insCCCA, g.1971del.T; MSH2: g.163del.C, g.746del.A; MSH6: g.3320del.A) and one nonsense mutation in MSH2 g.1030C>T leads to a stop codon: p.Q344X. In one patient, the previously described MLH1 nonsense mutation g.806C>G was found in a homozygous state. In this patient, the familial histories of both the mother and father suggested HNPCC syndrome. This patient developed colon cancer at 22 years of age, suggesting a more aggressive phenotype. The results of our study provide further insight into the mutational spectrum of MMR genes in HNPCC families.
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ranking = 956489.8864684
keywords = hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal, hereditary nonpolyposis, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, nonpolyposis colorectal, nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, nonpolyposis, colorectal cancer, colorectal, cancer
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