Cases reported "Chromosomal Instability"

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1/2. ICF syndrome in a girl with dna hypomethylation but without detectable DNMT3B mutation.

    A 3-year-old girl with phenotypic and cytogenetic manifestations of the ICF syndrome and dna hypomethylation but without DNMT3B gene mutation is described. At age 3 months, she had an apneic spell that left her with spastic paraplegia and severe mental retardation. At age 8 months, she suffered meningococcal meningitis and sepsis. When seen by us at age 3 years with virilization, she had a cleft plate, macroglossia, and an atrial septal defect. An adenoma was surgically removed from the right adrenal cortex. Her serum immunoglobulin levels were normal except IgA at the low normal border. Her lymphocytes showed paracentromeric stretching of chromosomes 1 and 16 in 7% of metaphases, and multiradial figures involving these chromosomes in 1% of cells. Hypomethylation of classical satellite 2 dna was observed with BstBI digestion, but in a lesser degree than those in the individuals with proven DNMT3B mutations. No mutation was found in the coding and promoter regions of the gene. Several alternative interpretations were considered to explain the low frequencies of chromosomal instabilities and the lower degree of dna hypomethylation, and undetected DNA3B mutations. A mutation may be present in the gene but undetected, present in other dna methyltransferases (DNMT) genes or in a DNMT-associated protein gene.
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2/2. A new and a reclassified ICF patient without mutations in DNMT3B and its interacting proteins SUMO-1 and UBC9.

    The ICF syndrome (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) (OMIM#242860) is a rare autosomal, recessively inherited disorder. Another rare condition, ischiadic hypoplasia, renal dysgenesis, immunodeficiency, and polydactyly (IHRDIP, OMIM#243340), displays features that resemble those of the ICF syndrome. Due to the overlapping symptoms in both syndromes, we asked whether a shared underlying molecular defect exists. Two patients, each with the clinical characteristics of one of these syndromes, were subjected to conventional cytogenetic analysis and the determination of the methylation state of satellite II dna. We found that both displayed the two hallmark features of the ICF syndrome, namely hypomethylation and centromeric instability of chromosomes 1 and 16. Therefore, we reclassified the patient previously diagnosed with the IHRDIP syndrome as an ICF patient. Since the majority of ICF patients are carriers of mutations in the methytransferase gene DNMT3B, we determined the sequence of its coding, splice site, and putative promoter region and analyzed its transcripts in both patients, without detecting any alterations. Similarly, the coding region of two DNMT3B-interacting proteins, SUMO-1 and UBC9, did not reveal mutations. With this study, the published number of patients that lack mutations in DNMT3B coding region increases to almost 40% of all ICF patients reported. It is, therefore, implied that a significant subset of ICF patients will have a yet unknown, alternative alteration, which may include the involvement of DNMT3B-interacting factors or aberrations of an independent pathway.
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