Cases reported "Chromosome Aberrations"

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1/557. Increased sister chromatid exchange in bone marrow and blood cells from Bloom's syndrome.

    Bone-marrow cells from a patient with Bloom's syndrome cultured for 48 h in the presence of BudR exhibited a striking increase in the number of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in comparison to that in the marrow cells of a patient with treated polycythemia vera (PV). Thus, it appears that an increased incidence of SCE in Bloom's syndrome occurs in various differentiated types of cells, not just blood lymphocytes, and constitutes the syndrome's most characteristic cytogenetic feature. In contrast, the incidence of SCE was not increased in marrow cells and lymphocytes of the particular PV patient studied here, whose cells did exhibit increased numbers of chromatid and chromosome gaps and breaks, presumably as result of the patient's earlier treatment. An increased frequency of SCE was demonstrated in Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes using both a technique based on BudR incorporation and one based on labeling with tritated deoxycytidine. This observation constitutes evidence against the increase of SCE being due to an unusual reaction to BudR. By conventional cytogenetic techniques, chromosome instability, including chromatid and chromosome breaks, but no homologous chromatid interchanges were also recognized in Bloom's syndrome bone-marrow cells incubated in vitro (without BudR) for either 1.k or 16 h. This observation points to the existence of chromosome instability in vivo.
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2/557. Importance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders.

    To the significance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders, six draw attention to cases have been analyzed. Associated diseases included acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML-M2, M3, M4, and M6), refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T). Two AML cases (M2, M6) were preceeded by myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). All patients showed greater than 3% basophilia in peripheral blood and bone marrow. basophils were identified successfully by metachromatic staining with toluidine blue in all cases. Three patients (M3, M4, RAEB) presented with lymphadenopathy, suggesting an association with extramedullary involvement. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity was significantly reduced in four patients with AML (M2, M3, M4) and RAEB-T. The clinical course was generally unfavourable characterized by short remission duration or disease progression except for the patient with RAEB. Haemorrhage was the main cause of death rather than infection. cytogenetic analysis revealed unique abnormalities involving chromosomes 3q21, 5q31, and 17q11 where the genes for some haematopoietic growth factors or their receptors are located, in addition to t(6;9) and t(15;17).
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3/557. Indeterminate-cell histiocytosis: immunophenotypic and cytogenetic findings in an infant.

    BACKGROUND: The authors report the immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic findings in a case of malignant histiocytic proliferation in an infant. PROCEDURE: The patient presented initially with bone lesions without skin or systemic involvement. Multiple biopsies were studied extensively by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Cytogenetic studies of cell cultures supplemented with granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were also performed. RESULTS: Morphologically, the cells resembled langerhans cells, although with greater pleomorphism, as evinced by cells with usual polylobated nuclei. These cells expressed markers for macrophages and antigen presenting cells and were CD1a- and S-100-positive, but lacked Birbeck granules. The cells grown in culture supplemented with GM-CSF showed a unique combination of numerical and structural abnormalities affecting chromosomes 1, 6, 8, and 10. The disease followed a malignant course leading to the patient's demise despite aggressive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a malignant hematopoietic stem-cell neoplasm with a capacity for macrophage or dendritic-cell differentiation. Morphology and immunophenotypic features place this neoplasm within the group recently conceptualized as indeterminate-cell histiocytosis.
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4/557. hemangioendothelioma of bone in a patient with a constitutional supernumerary marker.

    A 13-year old girl was diagnosed as having a bone hemangioendothelioma. Cytogenetic studies identified the presence of a small supernumerary marker chromosome in this patient. Classical cytogenetic methods using G-, C-, Ag-NOR-banding were supplemented by spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescence in situ hybridization to reveal a karyotype 47,XX, mar.ish der(22)(D22S543 ) karyotype in cells derived from the tumor and lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the supernumerary marker chromosome originated from the proximal centromeric region of chromosome 22, and that trisomy of the region 22q11 was not associated with adverse phenotypic effects, but that the presence of trisomy 22q11 may be related to the development of this tumor.
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5/557. Multiple karyotypic aberrations in a polymorphous variant of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

    A 71-year-old woman presented with malaise, skin bruising, epistaxis, and gingival bleeding of recent and prompt onset. There was no adenopathy. The liver and spleen were not enlarged. Bone marrow aspirate showed a polymorphous infiltration with lymphocytes (22%), typical Marschalko plasma cells (16%), plasmacytoid lymphocytes (29%), lymphoblasts (8%), and immunoblasts (13%). The immunoblasts morphologically resembled lymphosarcoma cells with a frequent "clover-leaf" appearance. An IgM paraprotein concentration in serum was 38.5 g/L. The bone marrow histopathology confirmed the presence of heterogenous cell infiltration, with 30% of the population being comprised of lymphoblasts and immunoblasts. In order to differentiate a polymorphous variant of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) from the more common small cell lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in anaplastic metamorphosis, flow cytometric studies were performed on marrow specimens. A typically bright surface IgM (lambda) was demonstrated with a less bright CD38. Further immunophenotype was HLA-DR , CD19 , CD20 and CD10-, CD22-, T-Ag- and kappa light chain- expression. This corroborated the diagnosis of an extremely rare, polymorphous variant of WM. The marrow cytogenetics disclosed 50% (10/20) pathologic metaphases 48,X,dup(X)(p21p22),der(2), 5,del(6)(q11q21), 12,inv(16)(p13q22), del(17) (p12), and 50% normal metaphases. The patient was treated with a LOPP protocol. She failed to respond and died 5 months after the diagnosis with myocardial and renal insufficiency complicating a pronounced pancytopenia in the peripheral blood.
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6/557. Wolf's syndrome in twins -- translocation in the mother.

    A case of MZ twins, both affected by Wolf's syndrome, is described. Their mother, of subnormal look and low intellectual level is translocated. The children, born with a weight and size much below the average, show a very special morphotype; a hook-nose, an an abnormal conformation of the back edge of the nostrils (a protrusion in the shape of a horn overhanging the filtrum), hypertelorism, microcephaly. Great asynchronism in the maturation of the bones and a somatoschisis of the body of the cervical vertebrae are noted. Deletion of the short arm chromosome 4 is juxtacentromeric. The study of blood and tissue groups corroborates monozygosity. Dermatoglyphs are little abnormal and identical in the two children. The mother's family is phenotypically normal. At 19 months of age, measuring is still below 4, psychomotor progress is extremely weak, and convulsions are frequent.
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7/557. temporal bone histopathologic findings in a case of interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 2 [del(2) (q31q33)].

    The temporal bones of a 24-day-old female neonate with an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 2 [del(2)(q31q33)] were studied histopathologically, focusing mainly on the inner ear. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a temporal bone study in a case of this chromosomal aberration. The abnormalities included a shortened cochlea with underdeveloped modiolus in both ears. Total absence of the spiral ganglion cells and the cochlear nerve bundle, accompanied by obliteration of the fundus of the internal auditory meatus by a bony plate, and dislocation of some geniculate ganglion cells to the internal auditory meatus were also observed in the right ear. The absence of the spiral ganglion cells is considered to be the result of some complication in the early fetal life, such as dysgenesis or early degeneration of the neuronal cells. The organ of corti in the right ear was well-developed and preserved in the middle turn, suggesting that the differentiation of the cochlear sensory epithelium in humans is not dependent upon the innervation, at least on the gross level.
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8/557. Acute promyelocytic leukemia with additional chromosomal abnormalities and absence of Auer rods.

    We report 4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cases that demonstrated karyotypic abnormalities in addition to the classic t(15;17) translocation and did not contain any Auer rods in leukemic blasts and dysplastic promyelocytes, either in the peripheral blood or in the bone marrow. Morphologically, 2 cases were characterized as the common or hypergranular type, and 2 were otherwise typical of the microgranular variant. Three patients had typical clinical and laboratory signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Immunophenotypic analysis of the blasts and dysplastic promyelocytes by dual-color flow cytometry revealed an immunoprofile consistent with acute promyelocytic leukemia. cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed the following karyotypes: case 1, [47,XY,t(15;17)(q22;q12), 21]; case 2, [47,XY,t(15;17)(q22;q12),-16, 2 mar]; case 3, [47,XX,t(15;17)(q22;q12)ider(17)(q10), 8]; and case 4, [47,XY,der(5)t(5;?9)(p15;q12).t(15;17)(q22;q12]. review of an additional 7 cases with t(15;17) as the sole cytogenetic abnormality revealed Auer rods in all cases. Our findings emphasize the importance of cytogenetics in evaluating acute myeloid leukemias. Acute promyelocytic leukemia without Auer rods, which may be morphologically confused with other types of leukemia (in particular, acute myeloblastic leukemia, type M2 or M5) or agranulocytosis with maturation arrest, appears to be associated with additional chromosomal abnormalities and possibly a poorer prognosis.
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9/557. Syndrome of microcephaly, Dandy-Walker malformation, and wilms tumor caused by mosaic variegated aneuploidy with premature centromere division (PCD): report of a new case and review of the literature.

    We report a male infant with multiple congenital anomalies and mosaic variegated aneuploidy; a rare cytogenetic abnormality characterized by mosaicism for several different aneuploidies involving many different chromosomes. He had prenatal-onset growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic face, seizures, hypotonia, feeding difficulty, and developmental delay. In addition, he developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Neuroradiological examination revealed Dandy-Walker malformation and hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere and pons. cytogenetic analysis revealed various multiple numerical aneuploidies in blood lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and bone marrow cells, together with premature centromere division (PCD). Peripheral blood chromosome analysis from his parents also showed PCD, but no aneuploid cells. The clinical phenotype and multiple aneuploidies of the patient may be a consequence of the homozygous PCD trait inherited from his parents. Comparison with previously reported cases of multiple aneuploidy suggests that mosaic variegated aneuploidy with PCD may be a clinically recognizable syndrome with major phenotypes being mental retardation, microcephaly, structural brain anomalies (including Dandy-Walker malformation), and possible cancer predisposition.
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10/557. Discordant expression of myeloid antigens and myeloperoxidase in a case of t(8;21) positive AML expressing CD7.

    We describe a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showing myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive and myeloid antigens negative. Although the leukemic cells showed few granules in May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, cytochemical MPO staining revealed that most of the blast cells strongly reacted with MPO. The leukemic cells did not express myeloid antigens (CD13, CD33), nor B-lymphoid or T-lymphoid antigens on the cell surface using flow cytometry, however. The cells did express CD34 and CD7. Discordant expression of MPO and myeloid antigens was also confirmed by electron microscopic MPO staining and by immunocytochemistry using a streptoavidin-biotin alkaline phosphatase labeling technique. Cytogenetic studies showed 46, XX, t(8;21) (q22;q22), del (9) (q22) in the bone marrow cells. In addition, AML1/ETO chimeric mRNA was detected from these cells. We summarize eight reported cases of MPO positive and myeloid antigens negative AML. Five of nine cases including our case had the same chromosomal abnormality of t(8;21) (q22;q22) and showed better prognosis than the other cases.
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