Cases reported "Chromosome Aberrations"

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1/21. Maternal UPD 20 in a hyperactive child with severe growth retardation.

    Maternal uniparental disomy was observed in a 4-year-old boy with severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation (body height: 85 cm = 12 cm < third percentile, head circumference: 48 cm = 10 cm < third percentile), a few minor facial findings, and with apparent hyperactivity. His intelligence is within the normal range for his age. Karyotype analysis revealed two cell lines, one apparently normal with 46,XY, the other with a tiny marker (47,XY, mar). microdissection and reverse chromosome painting using the marker dna library as a probe, as well as PCR analysis revealed that the marker is from chromosome 20 and contains only the centromere and pericentromeric segments, but none of the pericentromeric loci for microsatellites. Microsatellite analysis of 25 chromosome 20 loci disclosed maternal uniparental disomy for all 16 informative markers. Maternal heterodisomy was evident for seven loci of the short arm segment 20p11.2-pter. Maternal isodisomy was found at five loci, three of them map to the proximal 20p11.2 segment and two to 20q. To our knowledge, this is the first case of maternal disomy 20 in humans.
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2/21. Duplication of 7p21.2-->pter due to maternal 7p;21q translocation: implications for critical segment assignment in the 7p duplication syndrome.

    We describe a 1-year-old boy with mental and physical retardation, a large anterior fontanel, brachycephaly with flat occiput, short and stubby fingers, generalized hypotonia, ocular hypertelorism, low-nasal bridge, long philtrum, high-narrow palate, apparently low-set ears, and a small mandible. cytogenetic analysis utilizing high resolution chromosome banding technique showed an unbalanced karyotype consisting of 46,XY,add(21)(q22.3) that originated from maternal balanced translocation between chromosomes 7 and 21. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using micro-dissected library probe pool from chromosome 7 confirmed the additional material on 21q was derived from chromosome 7. Our results indicated that the patient had an unbalanced translocation, 46,XY, der(21)t(7;21)(p21.2;q22.3)mat, which resulted in duplication for distal 7p. Our patient is similar to reported cases with a 7p15-->pter or larger duplication of 7p, suggesting that the critical segment causing the characteristic phenotype of 7p duplication syndrome, including large anterior fontanel, exists at 7p21.2 or 7p21.2-->pter.
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3/21. A de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement with a translocation 7;9 and 8q insertion in a male carrier with no infertility.

    A de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 7, 8 and 9 in a male carrier was ascertained through his healthy wife's recurrent spontaneous abortions. Six pregnancies over eight years resulted in four spontaneous abortions and two livebirths who died perinatally due to abnormal vital signs. Cytogenetic analyses utilizing high resolution chromosome banding technique showed a deletion of band in a der(7) chromosome and an extra band inserting at 8q21.2. Another extra band was also observed at the band 9p24, but it could not be karyotypically determined. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization using chromosome 7 and 8 specific microdissected library as probes confirmed the insertion of a segment from the translocated chromosome 7 into a chromosome 8, and additionally revealed a translocation between chromosomes 7 and 9. The karyotype of the CCR carrier was determined as 46,XY,t(7;9)(q22;p24),ins(8;7)(q21.2;q22q32).ish der(9)(wcp7 );ins(8;7)(wcp8 ,wcp7 ). Comparing with previously reported male CCR carriers with our case, we conclude that male CCR carriers may not always present with infertility or subfertility phenotypes. This may suggest that rare transmission of male carriers could result from abnormal chromosomal rearrangements during meiosis and gametogenesis in addition to frequent infertility.
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4/21. Typical and partial cat eye syndrome: identification of the marker chromosome by FISH.

    Three children are reported with typical cat eye syndrome (CES) and three more children with partial CES because of absence of coloboma, in which the supernumerary marker chromosome was studied by FISH. Using a genomic library, and also a centromeric and particularly a cosmid probe of 22q11, partial tetrasomy was shown in all cases.
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5/21. A non-isotopic in situ hybridisation study of the chromosomal origin of 15 supernumerary marker chromosomes in man.

    Fifteen patients presenting with mosaic or non-mosaic karyotypes containing a distamycin-DAPI negative de novo or familial supernumerary marker chromosome were studied with non-isotopic in situ hybridisation using a library of alphoid centromere specific and satellite II/III probes. The in situ hybridisation studies showed that seven markers were derived from satellited autosomes (three chromosome 13/21, two chromosome 14, two chromosome 22), six from non-satellited autosomes (two chromosome 4, one chromosome 12, one chromosome 16, two chromosome 19), and one from the y chromosome. One non-mosaic marker was negative for all the alphoid and satellite II/III probes used.
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6/21. Dicentric (19;21)(p13;p13), a novel chromosomal abnormality occurring in a case of philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    We report on a patient with philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who acquired a novel chromosomal abnormality, a dic(19;21)(p13;p13), during relapse of the disease. The cytogenetic result was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using alpha-satellite and library probes specific for chromosomes 19 and 21, respectively, as well as a chromosome 19q13.1-specific dna probe. In our case, the dic(19;21) represents a secondary genetic change and was associated with disease progression and poor prognosis.
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7/21. microdissection based cloning of a translocation breakpoint in a human malignant melanoma.

    Chromosome translocations in human malignancies have identified the genomic location of several important growth-regulatory sequences (e.g., cellular oncogenes and suppressor genes). Melanomas are characterized by recurring chromosome alterations, including deletion or translocations of the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q). This report details our efforts to clone the t(1;6)(q21;q14) breakpoint in a malignant melanoma to further our understanding of the biology of these tumors. The strategy utilized combined microdissection of the translocation chromosome, development and characterization of a dna microclone library, isolation of cosmids and YACs from the breakpoint region, ordering of clones by two-color metaphase/interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and finally, identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint. By analogy to other tumor systems, molecular examination of the chromosome 6 breakpoint may provide insight into the pathobiology of this important neoplasm.
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8/21. chromosome painting as a supplement to cytogenetic banding analysis in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization with biotin labeled chromosome-specific libraries was performed on short-term cultures from five cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The painting analysis proceeded in three stages. First-stage CISS hybridization was done with libraries specific for chromosomes that seemed to be lost or rearranged as judged by banding analysis. Second-stage CISS included hybridization with probes specific for chromosomes that, because of banding pattern similarities, were considered to be likely candidates to have contributed unidentified chromatin blocks in the abnormal karyotype. The third and final stage was a confirmation hybridization with a library specific for the chromosome that, at the stage two analysis, was found to have donated the previously unknown chromosomal segment. The aberrant chromosomes were often more complex than the banding analysis had led us to believe. Among the rearrangements whose nature was determined by CISS hybridization were two add(1)(p36) which, in both cases, were shown to be a der(1)t(1;2)(p36;q31). This study illustrates the potential use of chromosome painting in resolving karyotypic uncertainties in NHL, and it shows that new cytogenetic subgroups may emerge when classical banding analysis is supplemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques.
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9/21. Pallister-Killian syndrome: normal karyotype in prenatal chorionic villi, in postnatal lymphocytes, and in slowly growing epidermal cells, but mosaic tetrasomy 12p in skin fibroblasts.

    We report on two patients with Pallister-Killian syndrome: an 18 month old male infant followed since the neonatal period and a 4 year old boy. prenatal diagnosis by chorionic villi sampling (CVS) in the first case showed a normal karyotype without mosaicism. Chromosome analysis on peripheral lymphocytes of the newborn also showed a normal karyotype. The clinical diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome was made after the first year of life because of the typical facial dysmorphism and other characteristic clinical features, such as frontotemporal alopecia, depigmented area of the skin, sensorineural hearing loss, and severe psychomotor retardation. Chromosome analysis from skin fibroblasts now showed an isochromosome 12p mosaicism. The origin of the extra chromosome was confirmed by in situ hybridisation using a chromosome 12 specific library. In the second case chromosomal analysis from peripheral lymphocytes at the age of 19 months showed a normal karyotype 46,XY. Following the clinical diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome a superficial skin biopsy was performed which showed very poor and slow growth of cells and a normal karyotype. Because of the typical symptoms a larger and deeper skin biopsy was performed from which there was rapid growth of fibroblasts. Now the diagnosis was established on the basis of the presence of an i(12p) extra chromosome in 69% of the metaphases.
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10/21. Value of chromosome painting in determining the chromosomal outcome in offspring of a 12;16 translocation carrier.

    We currently use direct and reverse chromosome painting in prenatal diagnosis. In a family with a subtle 12;16 translocation, adjacent 1 segregation was diagnosed in the first child, a boy, in whom symptoms compatible with partial trisomy 16p and partial monosomy 12q were seen. In the next pregnancy, a chorionic villus biopsy was tested using chromosome painting. Only by supplementing conventional cytogenetic methods with molecular cytogenetic techniques could the true karyotype be unequivocally determined. Reverse painting, using DOP-PCR amplified, flow sorted paternal derivative chromosomes as a dna library to paint the chorionic villus cells, was especially informative.
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