Cases reported "Chromosome Aberrations"

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1/222. Screening for submicroscopic chromosome rearrangements in children with idiopathic mental retardation using microsatellite markers for the chromosome telomeres.

    Recently much attention has been given to the detection of submicroscopic chromosome rearrangements in patients with idiopathic mental retardation. We have screened 27 subjects with mental retardation and dysmorphic features for such rearrangements using a genetic marker panel screening. The screening was a pilot project using markers from the subtelomeric regions of all 41 chromosome arms. The markers were informative for monosomy in both parents at 3661902 loci (40.6%, 95% confidence interval 37.0-44.2%) in the 22 families where dna was available from both parents. In two of the 27 subjects, submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations were detected. The first patient had a 5-6 Mb deletion of chromosome 18q and the second patient had a 4 Mb deletion of chromosome 1p. The identification of two deletions in 27 cases gave an aberration frequency of 7.5% without adjustment for marker informativeness (95% confidence interval 1-24%) and an estimated frequency of 18% if marker informativeness for monosomy was taken into account. This frequency is higher than previous estimates of the number of subtelomeric chromosome abnormalities in children with idiopathic mental retardation (5-10%) although the confidence interval is overlapping. Our study suggests that in spite of the low informativeness of this pilot screening, submicroscopic chromosome aberrations may be a common cause of dysmorphic features and mental retardation.
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2/222. prenatal diagnosis of a mosaic extra structurally abnormal chromosome by spectral karyotyping.

    A de novo mosaic extra structurally abnormal chromosome (ESAC) was detected in 33 per cent of cultured amniotic fluid cells from a pregnant woman. Neither Q-banding nor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) employing a dna probe for nucleolar organizer region demonstrated the presence of satellites on the ESAC. spectral karyotyping (SKY) was performed in this prenatal case and led to a quick and accurate determination of the ESAC as chromosome 14 in origin. The SKY finding was confirmed by conventional FISH analysis using a chromosome 14 specific painting probe. Subsequent hybridizations with a centromeric probe and a 14q subtelomeric probe were also performed to further characterize the ESAC. Absence of (TTAGGG)n sequence on the ESAC, determined postnatally, suggested it is a ring chromosome 14. Genetic counselling concerning these findings was provided to the parents who chose to continue the pregnancy. The male infant had no apparent abnormal phenotype at birth.
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3/222. Maternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14 detected prenatally.

    Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) has been associated with a distinct phenotype. We describe the first case of maternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14 detected prenatally, in a pregnancy with mosaicism for trisomy 14 observed in both a chorionic villus sample (CVS) and in amniocytes. Detailed analysis of polymorphic microsatellites showed that the fetus was essentially isodisomic for one of the mother's chromosomes 14 and that recombination had introduced a mid-long arm region of heterodisomy. The fetus, which died in utero at 18 weeks, showed no apparent pathological features. The case demonstrates for the first time a maternal meiosis II non-disjunction of chromosome 14 leading to a trisomic conception which has been incompletely corrected by 'rescue' in the early embryo.
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4/222. Duplication within chromosome region 15q11-q13 in a patient with similarities to prader-willi syndrome confirmed by region-specific and band-specific fish.

    We report on a patient presenting with mental retardation and obesity and a proximal duplication of chromosome 15. The patient shared some clinical signs with prader-willi syndrome. With a region-specific paint, generated by microdissection, a duplication in region 15q11.2-q13 was shown to be present. Subsequently, FISH with probes localized to chromosome region 15q11.2-q12 and microsatellite analysis was used to characterize this chromosome aberration further and an insertion duplication within the region frequently deleted in Prader-Willi and angelman syndrome was demonstrated.
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5/222. Coexistence of inverted Y, chromosome 15p and abnormal phenotype.

    In this study, we report conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies in a patient with multiple anomalies who is a carrier of a pericentric inversion on chromosome Y and a chromosome 15p . His parents were phenotypically normal. The father is a carrier of a pericentric inversion of chromosome Y, and the mother carries a large chromosome 15p variant. The inverted y chromosome was demonstrated by GTG- and CBG-banding, and DAPI-staining. The presence of extra chromosomal material on the chromosome 15p, that was C-band and DAPI positive, was demonstrated by trypsin G-banding. This suggests that the extra chromosomal material contained repetitive dna sequences. NOR-staining indicated the presence a nuclear organizer region at the junction of the chromosome 15p material. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), with chromosome X and Y painting probes, alpha- and classic-satellite probes specific for chromosome Y, alpha- and beta-satellite III probes for chromosome 15 were used to elucidate the nature of both the inverted y chromosome and chromosome 15p . The result with chromosome X and Y painting probes, alpha-satellite, classic-satellite, and DYS59 probes specific for chromosome Y revealed the rearrangement of the y chromosome was an inv(Y)(p11.2q11.22 or q11.23). FISH with alpha-satellite and beta-satellite III probes for chromosome 15 demonstrated that the extra chromosomal material on the chromosome 15 probably represents beta-satellite III sequences. The possible roles of the simultaneous occurrence of an inverted Y and the amplified dna sequence on chromosome 15p in the abnormal phenotype of the proband are discussed.
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6/222. Deletion of chromosome 2q37 and autism: a distinct subtype?

    Several reports have described the occurrence of chromosome abnormalities in autism, a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, communication impairment, and a restricted range of interests. These include the fragile X abnormality and 15q duplications. In this report, we describe two cases of chromosome 2q37 and review the literature on this topic. We propose that deletion of the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 2 (2q37) may be associated with some cases of autism and with a distinct phenotype. Increased awareness of the dysmorphic features associated with 2q37 deletions may aid in the molecular genetic analysis of this chromosome anomaly and clarify its relationship with autism.
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7/222. Maternal UPD 20 in a hyperactive child with severe growth retardation.

    Maternal uniparental disomy was observed in a 4-year-old boy with severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation (body height: 85 cm = 12 cm < third percentile, head circumference: 48 cm = 10 cm < third percentile), a few minor facial findings, and with apparent hyperactivity. His intelligence is within the normal range for his age. karyotype analysis revealed two cell lines, one apparently normal with 46,XY, the other with a tiny marker (47,XY, mar). microdissection and reverse chromosome painting using the marker dna library as a probe, as well as PCR analysis revealed that the marker is from chromosome 20 and contains only the centromere and pericentromeric segments, but none of the pericentromeric loci for microsatellites. Microsatellite analysis of 25 chromosome 20 loci disclosed maternal uniparental disomy for all 16 informative markers. Maternal heterodisomy was evident for seven loci of the short arm segment 20p11.2-pter. Maternal isodisomy was found at five loci, three of them map to the proximal 20p11.2 segment and two to 20q. To our knowledge, this is the first case of maternal disomy 20 in humans.
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8/222. tetrasomy 9p due to an intrachromosomal triplication of 9p13-p22.

    To date, approximately 30 patients have been described with a tetrasomy 9p, all being caused by the presence of an isochromosome 9p. We now report on a 3-year-old boy with a de novo intrachromosomal triplication of 9p13-p22, resulting in partial tetrasomy 9p. We compared his phenotype with cases of tetrasomy 9p caused by the presence of an extra isochromosome 9p. He has facial anomalies similar to those of cases of tetrasomy 9p, central nervous system abnormalities, and severe psychomotor retardation but no other major congenital anomalies. fluorescence in situ hybridization with region-specific probes showed that the middle repeat of the triplicated part is inverted. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated an involvement of both paternal chromosome 9 homologues in the triplication. This is compatible with either unequal crossing over of three of the four chromatids in paternal meiosis I or with a double crossing over in meiosis I and II (or an early mitotic division).
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9/222. angelman syndrome with uniparental disomy due to paternal meiosis II nondisjunction.

    We report a case of angelman syndrome (AS) with paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) of chromosome 15. This 6-year-old girl with overgrowth had frequent, but only provoked laughter, was mildly ataxic with limb hypertonia, and had no intelligible speech. She had deep-set eyes, protruding tongue, and prominent chin. The karyotype was normal. dna analysis with microsatellites from chromosome 15 showed no inheritance of maternal alleles both within and outside the AS critical region. Proximal markers showed reduction to homozygosity of paternal alleles, intermediate markers showed nonreduction, and distal markers reduction, thus suggesting a meiosis II nondisjunction event in the father with two crossovers. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of AS due to meiosis II nondisjunction. We present detailed physical measurements in this patient, adding to the clinical description of the milder phenotype in AS due to pUPD.
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10/222. chediak-higashi syndrome associated with maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 1.

    chediak-higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder (incidence around 1 in 106 births), characterised by a complex immunologic defects, reduced pigmentation, and presence of giant granules in many different cell types. It most likely results from defective organellar trafficking or protein sorting. The causative gene (LYST) has recently been identified and shown to be homologous to the beige locus in the mouse. CHS has always been reported associated with premature-termination-codon mutations in both alleles of LYST. We report a unique patient with CHS, who was homozygous for a stop codon in the LYST gene on chromosome 1 and who had a normal 46,XY karyotype. The mother was found to be a carrier of the mutation, whereas the father had two normal LYST alleles. Non-paternity was excluded by the analysis of microsatellite markers from different chromosomes. The results of 13 informative microsatellite markers spanning the entire chromosome 1 revealed that the proband had a maternal isodisomy of chromosome 1 encompassing the LYST mutation. The proband's clinical presentation also confirms the absence of imprinted genes on chromosome 1.
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