Cases reported "Chromosome Breakage"

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1/15. Jumping translocations involving 11q in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    This paper presents the results of a cytogenetic analysis in an 11-year-old boy with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The investigation was performed on slides obtained from short-term culture of lymph node cells. The analyses revealed an abnormal clone with loss of Y, gain of an x chromosome, t(3;22), trisomy 11, and three cytogenetically-related subclones with jumping translocations involving 11q13 as the common breakpoint region. This region is an unusual site of chromosome breakage in jumping translocations, and has not been reported thus far. Contrary to most published reports, the jumping translocation in our patient is associated with long survival.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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2/15. Three cell line mosaicism involving structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 18 in a 3.5-year-old girl: 47,XX, 18/47,XX, del(18)(q22)/46,XX.

    We report on a 3.5-year-old girl with a mosaic karyotype including full trisomy 18, normal cells and a majority of cells with partial trisomy involving an extra chromosome 18 deleted at band q22. She had cardiac and CNS anomalies, dysmorphic facial features failure to thrive and developmental delay. A gastrostomy tube was placed at 2 years of age. The combination of improved nutrition and optimal developmental therapy has led to her sitting supported, attempting to stand and enhancement of her cognitive and non-verbal communication abilities. Molecular investigation of the patient and her parents using microsatellite analysis has led to the conclusion that, as expected, the additional copy of chromosome 18 constituting the full trisomic cell line is maternal meiosis I in origin. The data, however, indicate that in the trisomic cell line containing the deleted chromosome 18q, the structurally abnormal 18 was of paternal origin. We think this case is the first described with both structural and numerical trisomic mosaicism involving chromosome 18 in a liveborn infant. We propose a mechanism of origin and review the literature, comparing the clinical presentation of this case with individuals having full or partial trisomy 18.
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ranking = 7.4801698122099
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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3/15. Interrupted aortic arch in a child with trisomy 5q31.1q35.1 due to a maternal (20;5) balanced insertion.

    Complex congenital heart defects (CHD) are associated with a variety of single gene abnormalities and chromosomal rearrangements. Of the various forms of CHD, aortic arch interruption, a conotruncal heart defect, is relatively uncommon. Here we report a male neonate with aortic arch interruption type B, secundum atrial septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic and subaortic stenosis, and trisomy 5q31.1q35.1 resulting from a maternal balanced insertion (20;5). Chromosomal deletions, including deletion 22q11, have been reported with interrupted aortic arch (IAA); however, to our knowledge this is the first report of a trisomy of distal chromosome 5q associated with aortic arch interruption. Here we compare this child's features to other cases of trisomy 5q31.1q35.1, and review other causes of IAA. We conclude that gene dosage in this chromosomal region likely influences aortic arch development.
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ranking = 7
keywords = trisomy
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4/15. Derivative (7)t(7;8)(q34;q21). a new additional cytogenetic abnormality in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Cytogenetic abnormalities in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) have been identified as one of the most important prognostic factors. The t(15;17) is associated with high rates of complete remission and event-free survival. Secondary chromosomal changes are also present in approximately one third of patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Indeed, the gain of whole chromosome 8 may be involved in the course of APL under C-MYC gene dosage effect theory. Complete or partial loss of the long arm of chromosome 7 region has been recognized in preleukemic myelodysplasia or unfavorable AML. We report here two original APL cases in which a new additional chromosomal abnormality, der(7)t(7;8)(q34;q21), is associated with the t(15;17)(q22;q21). This recurrent abnormality results in a partial loss of 7q associated with a partial 8q trisomy. As the 7q and 8q breakpoints were similar in both cases, the involvement of these critical regions in the pathogenesis and outcome of APL disease has to be determined.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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5/15. Familial MCA/MR syndrome due to inherited submicroscopic translocation t(18;21)(q22.1q21.3) with breakpoint at the down syndrome critical region.

    We report three generation family that includes two patients with severe mental retardation and additional anomalies who have been studied, clinically, cytogenetically, and molecular cytogenetically. A clinical diagnosis could not be made in the propositus, but facial anomalies of down syndrome (DS) were recognized in the maternal uncle of the propositus. In view of a strong family history of recurrent miscarriage, a familial translocation was highly suggestive. Standard cytogenetic analysis did not reveal any abnormalities. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using subtelomeric dna probes identified a familial cryptic translocation of chromosomes 18 and 21, resulting in partial trisomy 21 and partial monosomy 18q in both patients. FISH analysis of obligate carriers demonstrated a balanced translocation between the terminal parts of 18q and 21q. Including this family, a total of six different familial cases with cryptic or subtle subtelomeric translocations of chromosome 21q has been reported, of which three involved terminal parts of chromosome 18q. The remarkable similarity of the chromosomal breakpoints of our patients and the described families prompted us to refine the breakpoints and to discuss phenotypic differences between these patients. Our results reinforce the role of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with mental retardation associated with physical anomalies and stress the importance of FISH technology to supplement routine cytogenetics.
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ranking = 3.2400849061049
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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6/15. A complex chromosomal rearrangement with a translocation 4;10;14 in a fertile male carrier: ascertainment through an offspring with partial trisomy 14q13-->q24.1 and partial monosomy 4q27-->q28 [corrected].

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are usually associated with infertility or subfertility in male carriers. If fertility is maintained, there is a high risk of abnormal pregnancy outcome. Few male carriers have been identified by children presenting with mental retardation/congenital malformations (MR/CM) or by spontaneous abortions of the spouses. We report a de novo CCR with five breakpoints involving chromosomes 4, 10 and 14 in a male carrier who was ascertained through a son presenting with MR/CM due to an unbalanced karyotype with partial trisomy 14 and partial monosomy 4. The child has a healthy elder brother. In the family history no abortions were reported. No fertility treatment was necessary. cytogenetic analysis from the affected son showed a reciprocal translocation t(4;10) with additional chromosomal material inserted between the translocation junctions in the derivative chromosome 10. The father showed the same derivative chromosome 10 but had additionally one aberrant chromosome 14. Further molecular cytogenetic analyses determined the inserted material in the aberrant chromosome 10 as derived from chromosome 14 and revealed a small translocation with material of chromosome 4 inserted into the derivative chromosome 14. Thus the phenotype of the son is supposed to be associated with a partial duplication 14q13-->q24.1 and a partial monosomy 4q27-->q28. Including our case we are aware of eleven CCR cases with fertile male carriers. In eight of these families normal offspring have been reported. We propose that exceptional CCRs in fertile male carriers might form comparatively simple pachytene configurations increasing the chance of healthy offspring.
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ranking = 16.200424530525
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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7/15. First non-mosaic case of isopseudodicentric chromosome 18 (psu idic(18)(pter --> q22.1::q22.1 --> pter) is associated with multiple congenital anomalies reminiscent of trisomy 18 and 18q- syndrome.

    Isopseudodicentric chromosome 18 is very rare and results in a combination of partial trisomy and partial monosomy of chromosome 18. We report here a hypotrophic newborn with a lateral cleft lip and palate and multiple craniofacial dysmorphisms, a combined heart defect, unilateral hypoplasia of the kidney, bilateral aplasia of thumbs, and generalized contractures. cytogenetic analysis revealed an isopseudodicentric chromosome 18 with breakpoint in 18q (46,XX,psu idic(18)(pter --> q22.1::q22.1 --> pter)). The isopseudodicentric chromosome 18 was observed in 100% of blood lymphocytes and umbilical cord fibroblasts, thus indicating a non-mosaic finding of the isopseudodicentric chromosome in the child. An elongated derivative chromosome 18 had also been found prenatally in amniotic cells. In contrast, a terminal deletion (18q-) was detected in placental cell cultures. The breakpoint was mapped to a 0.9 Mb region on 18q22.1 (located 64.8-65.7 Mb from the telomere of the p-arm) by a novel quantitative PCR approach with SYBR green detection. The results indicate an identical breakpoint of the isopseudodicentric chromosome 18 in the child and the 18q- chromosome in the placenta. To our knowledge this is the first report that a fetus carrying an isopseudodicentric chromosome 18 with breakpoint in 18q (46,XX,psu idic(18)(pter --> q22.1::q22.1 --> pter)) in non-mosaic form can be viable, but is associated with severe congenital malformations of the child.
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ranking = 7.2400849061049
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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8/15. Recurrent proximal 18p monosomy and 18q trisomy in a family with a maternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 18.

    We report a recurrent partial monosomy of 18p10-->11.2 and proximal partial trisomy of 18q10-->21.3 caused by a maternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 18, involving breakpoints p11.2 and q21q21.3 Based on cytogenetics and FISH analysis, we speculate that the recurrent chromosome abnormality in the proband and in the fetus was the result of a translocation, possibly in a germ cell or germ cell precursor, between the maternal normal 18 and her inverted 18, resulting in maternal germinal mosaicism, i.e. 46,XX,inv(18)/46,XX,t[18;inv(18)][q10;q10]. The unbalanced karyotype of the proband and the fetus is 46,XY, 18,der[18;inv(18)][q10;q10]. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of this combination of proximal 18p monosomy and proximal 18q trisomy. The other interesting observation was association of Hirschsprung's disease in the proband.
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ranking = 8.2400849061049
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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9/15. A patient with mosaic partial trisomy 18 resulting from dicentric chromosome breakage.

    We present a patient with minor dysmorphic features and a mosaic karyotype with two different abnormal cell lines, both involving abnormalities of chromosome 18. Twenty percent of cells studied (4/20) had 46 chromosomes with a large derivative pseudoisodicentric chromosome 18. This chromosome was deleted for 18pter and duplicated for part of proximal 18p (18p11.2 based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies and all of 18q. The two copies of portions of chromosome 18 were fused in an inverted fashion (duplicated for 18qter->18p11.3). The smaller der(18) was present in 80% of cells studied (16/20) and had a normal q-arm, while the p-arm was missing the subtelomere region but had duplication of a part of 18p. FISH studies showed that the larger derivative 18 contained the 18q subtelomere at each end, but the 18p subtelomere was absent, consistent with fusion of two regions within 18p resulting in deletion of the subtelomeric regions. The smaller der(18) was also missing the 18p subtelomere (with normal 18q as expected). Further testing with BAC clones mapping within 18p11.2 showed that these sequences were duplicated and inverted in both of the der(18)s. These findings lead us to hypothesize that the smaller der(18) was derived from the larger, dicentric 18 following anaphase bridge formation, with breakage distal to the duplicated segment.
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ranking = 12.96033962442
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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10/15. trisomy 10p with clinical features of facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a case report.

    We report a male child born with complete absence of his external ear, hemifacial microsomia of the right side, high arched palate, a down-turned upper lip and slightly up-slanting palpebral fissures. The features were suggestive of facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum. Investigations showed a tandem duplication of the short arm of one chromosome 10 with apparent breakpoints at p14 and p15. This case extends the list of chromosomal abnormalities associated with the facio-auriculo-vertebral phenotype and also adds useful clinical information to possible trisomy 10p phenotypes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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