Cases reported "Chromosome Deletion"

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11/119. Bladder cancer genotype stability during clinical progression.

    genomic instability is manifested by the accumulation of large numbers of mutations. The rate at which mutations accumulate has been difficult to estimate because serial comparisons are required. For further insight into how quickly mutations accumulate during clinical progression, cell lines sequentially isolated 6 or 11 months apart from two patients with metastatic bladder cancer were compared for loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The genomes were scanned at approximately 200 polymorphic microsatellite loci to increase the resolution and sensitivity for losses. The cell lines from both patients had evidence of genomic instability, with aneuploidy, chromosomal instability, and fractional allelic losses of 0.15 and 0. 48, respectively. However, additional changes were relatively infrequent, with more than 90% identity between the initial and recurrent cell lines. Allelic losses were not randomly scattered, but clustered on specific chromosomes. Therefore, the numbers of loci with further LOH during the clinical progression of some bladder cancers are small relative to the total number of loci with LOH, suggesting that most allelic losses accumulate before clinical presentation.
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12/119. Inverted duplications are recurrent rearrangements always associated with a distal deletion: description of a new case involving 2q.

    We studied the case of a subject with an inverted duplication of 40 cM of 2q33-q37 concurrent with a 10 cM deletion of the distal 2q, the latter not being detectable by cytogenetics. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated the absence of maternal alleles in the deleted region and a double dosage for one of the maternal alleles in the duplication region. We hypothesised that this type of rearrangement occurs at meiosis I, while the two homologues are synapsed for most of their length. The presence of inverted duplicons in the same chromosome arm would favour the partial refolding of one homologue into itself so leading to the intrachromatid synapsis and recombination of the inverted repeats. The arising recombinant chromosome is deleted for the region beyond the most distal repeat and with the chromatids joined together at the level of the region located between the two duplicons. At meiosis II, the two linked chromatids can join the opposite poles provided that a breakage between the two centromeres occurs leading to a duplicated/deleted chromosome and a simply deleted chromosome. This model can be extended to all the so-called inverted duplication cases and to part of the terminal deletions. In fact the finding that, in our invdup(2q), the entire 40 cM duplication region involves only one of the two maternal alleles, indeed indicates that the abnormal crossover occurs between sister chromatids. The phenotype associated with our 2q rearrangement led us to narrow the critical region for the Albright-like syndrome to 10 cM in the subterminal 2q region.
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13/119. A novel dicentric deleted chromosome 21 arising from tandem translocation.

    We present a 26-year-old patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Initial bone marrow cytogenetics with G-banding showed a rearranged chromosome 21, which was dicentric and bisatellited on CBG- and NOR-banding. fluorescence in situ hybridization helped to characterize the structure, using a whole chromosome 21 paint and the locus specific AML1 gene probe. The rearranged 21 consisted solely of chromosome 21 material, contained only one copy of AML1, and was not a trisomy, but a deleted tandem translocation. The MDS transformed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the patient died almost 12 months post-diagnosis. cytogenetics was performed three times during the course of the disease, and the dicentric chromosome 21 was present throughout. Although there are a number of published rearrangements of chromosome 21 in MDS and AML, most are isodicentrics. We could not find another case of an abnormal chromosome 21 with the same structure as reported here.
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14/119. Leucodystrophy and oculocutaneous albinism in a child with an 11q14 deletion.

    We report a patient with an undetermined leucodystrophy associated with type 1A oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). Type 1 OCA results from recessive mutations in the tyrosinase gene (TYR) located in 11q14.3. The patient was found by FISH to carry a deletion of at least the first exon of the TYR gene on one chromosome and a (TG) deletion at codon 244/245 on the second chromosome. The existence of the microdeletion suggested that a gene responsible for leucodystrophy was located in the vicinity of the TYR gene. A combination of a test of hemizygosity and contig mapping studies allowed us to map the gene within a 0.6 cM region flanked by microsatellite markers D11S1780 and D11S931.
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15/119. Molecular and clinical characterization of a patient with a chromosome 4p deletion, wolf-hirschhorn syndrome, and congenital glaucoma.

    wolf-hirschhorn syndrome is a developmental disorder associated with hemizygous deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 4. We have identified a patient affected with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome and early onset glaucoma. Five other patients with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome and early onset glaucoma or ocular anomalies associated with early onset glaucoma have been previously described, suggesting that the association with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome is not coincidental. The infrequent association of early onset glaucoma suggests that the chromosomal region commonly deleted in Wolf-Hirschhorn patients does not contain genes responsible for early onset glaucoma. In this study, we performed a molecular characterization of the deleted chromosome 4 to determine the extent of the deletion in an attempt to begin to identify the chromosomal region responsible for the associated glaucoma. Using microsatellite repeat markers located on 4p, we determined that the deletion spanned a 60-cM region including the minimal Wolf-Hirschhorn region. The proximal breakpoint occurred between markers D4S3045 and D4S2974. These results support the hypothesis that patients with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome and early onset glaucoma may have large deletions of 4p that include a gene(s) that may be responsible for a dominant form of congenital glaucoma.
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16/119. GATA3 abnormalities and the phenotypic spectrum of HDR syndrome.

    We report on GATA3 analysis and the phenotypic spectrum in nine Japanese families with the HDR syndrome (hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal dysplasia) (MIM 146255). fluorescence in situ hybridisation and microsatellite analyses showed heterozygous gross deletions including GATA3 in four families. sequence analysis showed heterozygous novel mutations in three families: a missense mutation within the first zinc finger domain at exon 4 (T823A, W275R), an unusual mutation at exon 4 (900insAA plus 901insCCT or C901AACCCT) resulting in a premature stop at codon 357 with loss of the second zinc finger domain, and a nonsense mutation at exon 6 (C1099T, R367X). No GATA3 abnormalities were identified in the remaining two families. The triad of HDR syndrome was variably manifested by patients with GATA3 abnormalities. The results suggest that HDR syndrome is primarily caused by GATA3 haploinsufficiency and is associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum.
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17/119. prenatal diagnosis of two rare de novo structural aberrations of the y chromosome: cytogenetic and molecular analysis.

    Two rare de novo structural aberrations of the y chromosome were detected during routine prenatal diagnosis: a satellited non-fluorescent y chromosome (Yqs), the first de novo Yqs to be reported in a fetus, and a terminal deletion of the y chromosome long arm del(Y)(q11). In both cases detailed cytogenetic and molecular analyses were undertaken. In the case of the Yqs it was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that the satellites were derived from chromosome 15. In the case of the del(Yq), it was shown with molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of sequence-tagged sites (STS-PCR) that the deleted portion of the long arm of chromosome Y included the azoospermia factor loci, AZFb and AZFc. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed.
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18/119. Molecular characterization of tetralogy of fallot within Digeorge critical region of the chromosome 22.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the levels of heterozygosity and microdeletion of specific loci within the DiGeorge critical region (del22q11) are associated with different phenotypes of tetralogy of fallot (TF). Examinations were conducted on 84 sporadic TF patients and their unaffected parents for del22q11, using the following 9 simple tandem repeat polymorphic microsatellite markers: D22S420, D22S427, D22S941, D22S944, D22S264, D22S311, D22S425, D22S303, D22S257. The microdeletions were confirmed using quantitative PCR with markers TUPLE1, exon 2 of the UFD1L gene, and D22S264; the boundaries of these microdeletions were estimated using genotypic analyses of the unaffected family members. The del22q11 was identified in 14 patients (16.6%). The boundary of the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO) in these 14 TF patients was identified, proximally using D22S427 and distally using the TUPLE 1 gene. The deletion of exon 2 of the UFD1L gene and TUPLE1 gene was identified in 13 patients (13/14 cases; 93%). The SRO in TF patients with del22q11 was at or close to the ADU breakpoint and centromeric to the UFD1L gene. The level of heterozygosity for the marker D22S944 in TF patients without del22q11 (n = 70) was found to be significantly lower than expected. overall, this study demonstrated the significantly low level of heterozygosity within DiGeorge critical region in TF patients with or without del22q11. Our results suggest that the genetic factors leading to DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome might also be partly responsible for TF phenotypes.
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19/119. Three cell line mosaicism involving structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 18 in a 3.5-year-old girl: 47,XX, 18/47,XX, del(18)(q22)/46,XX.

    We report on a 3.5-year-old girl with a mosaic karyotype including full trisomy 18, normal cells and a majority of cells with partial trisomy involving an extra chromosome 18 deleted at band q22. She had cardiac and CNS anomalies, dysmorphic facial features failure to thrive and developmental delay. A gastrostomy tube was placed at 2 years of age. The combination of improved nutrition and optimal developmental therapy has led to her sitting supported, attempting to stand and enhancement of her cognitive and non-verbal communication abilities. Molecular investigation of the patient and her parents using microsatellite analysis has led to the conclusion that, as expected, the additional copy of chromosome 18 constituting the full trisomic cell line is maternal meiosis I in origin. The data, however, indicate that in the trisomic cell line containing the deleted chromosome 18q, the structurally abnormal 18 was of paternal origin. We think this case is the first described with both structural and numerical trisomic mosaicism involving chromosome 18 in a liveborn infant. We propose a mechanism of origin and review the literature, comparing the clinical presentation of this case with individuals having full or partial trisomy 18.
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20/119. Deletions at chromosome regions 7q11.23 and 7q36 in a patient with williams syndrome.

    We report on a patient with williams syndrome and a complex de novo chromosome rearrangement, including microdeletions at 7q11.23 and 7q36 and additional chromosomal material at 7q36. The nature of this additional material was elucidated by spectral karyotyping and first assigned to chromosome 22. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed that it consisted of satellite material only. Refinement of the 7q36 breakpoint was performed with several FISH probes, showing a deletion distal to the triphalangeal thumb (TPT) region. The phenotype of the patient principally results from the microdeletion of the 7q11.23; the small deletion at 7qter and the extra satellite material may not be of clinical significance.
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