Cases reported "Chromosome Deletion"

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1/51. child with velocardiofacial syndrome and del (4)(q34.2): another critical region associated with a velocardiofacial syndrome-like phenotype.

    We report on a child with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis), submucosal cleft palate, hypernasal speech, learning difficulties, and right fifth finger anomaly manifestations, consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS); however, cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a small terminal deletion of the segment 4q34.2 to 4qter. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not identify a deletion of the critical region associated with VCFS. In previously reported 4q deletions with a breakpoint distal to 4q34.2, no cardiac defects or cleft of palate were reported. Our patient has a deletion of 4q34.2 to 4qter and has palate and cardiac involvement and minor learning difficulties, which implies that genes involved in heart and palate development lie distal to 4q34.2, and that the critical region for more severe mental retardation on 4q may reside proximal to 4q34.2. These results suggest that a distal 4q deletion can lead to a phenotype similar to VCFS and emphasizes the importance of searching for other karyotype abnormalities when a VCFS-like phenotype is present and a 22q deletion is not identified.
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keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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2/51. Abdominal lymphatic dysplasia and 22q11 microdeletion.

    We report the case of a child with 22q11 microdeletion who presented with abdominal lymphatic dysplasia resulting in exsudative enteropathy. This primitive and localized lymphatic malformation is consistent with the vascular theory in the velocardiofacial syndrome.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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3/51. A hirschsprung disease locus at 22q11?

    We report a boy with truncus arteriosus, dysmorphic features, developmental delay, passing hypotonia, short segment hirschsprung disease (HSCR), and paroxysmal hypoventilation. FISH analysis showed an interstitial deletion in chromosome band 22q11.2 coinciding with the deletions found in digeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome. mutation scanning of RET, GDNF, EDNRB, and EDN3, genes associated with hirschsprung disease, showed no aberrations. Since we know of two more patients with velocardiofacial syndrome and HSCR, we hypothesise that a gene responsible for proper development of the enteric nervous system may be included in the 22q11.2 region.
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ranking = 0.22222222222222
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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4/51. Patient with a 22q11.2 deletion with no overlap of the minimal digeorge syndrome critical region (MDGCR).

    The apparent lack of genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with the DiGeorge anomaly and velocardiofacial syndrome (DGA/VCFS; the "22q11 deletion syndrome") indicates a complex genetic condition. Most cases, whatever the phenotype, have a 1.5-3 Mb chromosomal deletion that includes the minimal DiGeorge critical region (MDGCR). Another potential critical region on 22q11 has been suggested based on two patients with distal deletions outside the MDGCR. We report on a patient with a VCFS phenotype who has a deletion, mapped by short tandem repeat polymorphic loci and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, distal to and not overlapping the MDGCR. This patient is deleted for several genes, including the T-box 1 gene (TBX1; a transcription regulator expressed early in embryogenesis) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; involved in neurotransmitter metabolism). We discuss the role these two genes may play in the clinical phenotype of the patient.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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5/51. CATCH 22 syndrome: report of 7 infants with follow-up data and review of the recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11.

    CATCH 22 is a medical acronym for Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia, and a variable deletion on chromosome 22. The deletion within the chromosome region of 22q11 may occur in patients with three well-described dysmorphologic cardiological syndromes: digeorge syndrome (DGS), velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). We report in detail seven infants with a deletion of the locus 22q11 showing overlapping clinical features of DGS and CTAFS with complex congenital heart defects (double outlet right ventricle, atresia or stenosis of the pulmonary valve, atrial and ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of fallot, major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, arcus aortae dexter, and persistence of the left superior vena cava). A homograft was implanted between the right ventricle and the main stem of the pulmonary artery in 2 patients, while a balloon valvuloplastic of the pulmonary valve was performed in one patient only. Pulmonary hemorrhage, acute hypoxia, and aspergillus pneumonia were the complications. death occurred in three out of seven patients. Recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11 are described. Since the locus 22q11 is highly heterogeneous, the CATCH 22 acronym should be used and temporarily the old eponyms should be abandoned waiting for the identification of the different genes.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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6/51. Agenesis of the corpus callosum associated with DiGeorge-velocardiofacial syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    We report a patient with clinical and cytogenetic findings consistent with DiGeorge-velocardiofacial syndrome and agenesis of the corpus callosum. This patient represents the first report of a case of DiGeorge-velocardiofacial syndrome associated with such a central nervous system abnormality. This case, together with previous reports in the literature, suggests that structural brain abnormalities, and in particular abnormalities of the corpus callosum, are part of the complex syndrome associated with the chromosomal microdeletion 22q11.2. We suggest that the diagnosis of DiGeorge-velocardiofacial syndrome be entertained in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum in the context of other common clinical features of this syndrome.
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ranking = 0.77777777777778
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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7/51. Velocardiofacial syndrome in childhood-onset schizophrenia.

    OBJECTIVES: Deletion of chromosome 22q11 (velocardiofacial syndrome) is associated with early neurodevelopmental abnormalities and with schizophrenia in adults. The rate of 22q11 deletions was examined in a series of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), in whom early premorbid developmental and cognitive impairments are more pronounced than in adult-onset cases. METHOD: Through extensive recruiting and screening, a cohort of 47 patients was enrolled in a comprehensive study of very-early-onset schizophrenia. All were tested with fluorescence in situ hybridization for deletions on chromosome 22q11. RESULTS: Three (6.4%) of 47 patients were found to have a 22q11 deletion. All 3 COS patients with 22q11 deletions had premorbid impairments of language, motor, and social development, although their physical characteristics varied. brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased midbody corpus callosum area and ventricular volume in relation both to healthy controls and to other COS patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of 22q11 deletions in COS is higher than in the general population (0.025%, p < .001) and may be higher than reported for adult-onset schizophrenia (2.0%, p = .09). These results suggest that 22q11 deletions may be associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia, possibly mediated by a more salient neurodevelopmental disruption.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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8/51. Genetic evaluation of pervasive developmental disorders: the terminal 22q13 deletion syndrome may represent a recognizable phenotype.

    The evaluation of mental retardation is always a challenge to clinicians. The recognition of specific physical or behavioral characteristics can vastly improve diagnostic yield. Several genetic disorders have been identified to have certain behavioral characteristics, such as williams syndrome, smith-magenis syndrome, and the velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). The deletion affecting the chromosome 22q in the most distal band (22q13) appears to define yet another neurobehavioral phenotype. In addition to our report, there are about 17 other cases published of this particular deletion syndrome. We describe three children who share features of developmental delay and pervasive behaviors in addition to normal to advanced growth patterns. Results of cytogenetic analysis suggest that the 3 patients share a deletion affecting the terminal 22q13 region. Two were found to have a cryptic deletion, in the third it was detected by conventional cytogenetics. The cryptic deletions were demonstrated using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), where the control probe for the DiGeorge/VCFS region was deleted. While there remain gaps in our understanding of this particular deletion syndrome, we propose that patients with normal or advanced growth, significantly delayed speech, deviant development and pervasive behaviors, with minor facial dysmorphism, be screened for this deletion.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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9/51. Dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for detecting deletions associated with VCFS/digeorge syndrome I and digeorge syndrome II loci.

    Over 90% of patients with digeorge syndrome (DGS) or velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have a microdeletion at 22q11.2. Given that these deletions are difficult to visualize at the light microscopic level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been instrumental in the diagnosis of this disorder. Deletions on the short arm of chromosome 10 are also associated with a DGS-like phenotype. Since deletions at 22q11.2 and at 10p13p14 result in similar findings, we have developed a dual-probe FISH assay for screening samples referred for DGS or VCFS in the clinical laboratory. This assay includes two test probes for the loci, DGSI at 22q11.2 and DGSII at 10p13p14, and centromeric probes for chromosomes 10 and 22. Of 412 patients tested, 54 were found to be deleted for the DGSI locus on chromosome 22 (13%), and a single patient was found deleted for the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 (0. 24%). The patient with the 10p deletion had facial features consistent with VCFS, plus sensorineural hearing loss, and renal anomalies. cytogenetic analysis showed a large deletion of 10p [46, XX,del(10)(p12.2p14)] and FISH using a 10p telomere region-specific probe confirmed the interstitial nature of the deletion. Analysis for the DGSI and the DGSII loci suggests that the deletion of the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 may be 50 times less frequent than the deletion of DGSI on chromosome 22. The incidence of deletions at 22q11.2 has been estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns; therefore, the deletion at 10p13p14 may be estimated to occur in 1 in 200,000 live births.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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10/51. Velocardiofacial syndrome associated with atrophy of the shoulder girdle muscles and cervicomedullary narrowing.

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It is secondary to a chromosome 22q11 rearrangement and is characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, heart defects and learning disability. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl with a chromosome 22q11 deletion who, in addition to learning difficulties, hypernasal speech and mild dysmorphic features, had weakness and wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles but no cardiac involvement. brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed narrowing of the cervicomedullary junction. The clinical features of this patient with velocardiofacial syndrome further expand the spectrum of abnormalities associated with this condition.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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