Cases reported "chromosome deletion"

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1/2881. Chromosome 7 short arm deletion and craniosynostosis. A 7p-syndrome.

    A patient with craniosynostosis and a small deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 7 is described. A review of the literature indicates that craniosynostosis has occurred in at least four of the five infants (the fifth having microcephaly) affected by structural changes (resulting in deletion) within the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 7. ( info)

2/2881. Genetic analysis of three patients with an 18p- syndrome and dystonia.

    Some patients with an 18p- syndrome show dystonia, and a focal dystonia gene has been mapped to chromosome 18p. The authors evaluated the extent of the deletion in three patients with an 18p- syndrome and dystonia using 14 dna markers on 18p. A common deleted area, covering the DYT7 locus, places the putative dystonia gene between the telomere of 18p and D18S1104 (49.6 cM). dystonia in these patients may be caused by haploinsufficiency of the DYT7 gene, a new dystonia gene on 18p, or may result from developmental brain anomalies. ( info)

3/2881. prader-willi syndrome and psychotic symptoms: 1. Case descriptions and genetic studies.

    Six people with prader-willi syndrome (PWS) who developed psychoses are described. Along with other literature reviewed in the present paper, the results imply an association between PWS and psychotic symptoms. Genetic studies were possible in five cases and SNRPN expression was examined in three cases. Maternal uniparental disomy and 15q11q13 deletions were found, demonstrating that psychotic symptoms are not associated with a single type of genetic abnormality. ( info)

4/2881. Sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma and 13q- chromosomal deletion.

    Unilateral retinoblastoma (Rb) is usually a sporadic occurrence while bilateral (multifocal) cases are often familial. Sporadic bilateral Rb associated with a long-arm deletion of a D-group chromosome has been reported in 8 children. We have studied a 6-year-old female with bilateral sporadic retinoblastoma, treated during infancy by enucleation and radiotherapy. chromosome banding studies on peripheral lymphocytes revealed an interstitial deletion from the long arm of a chromosome 13: del(13) (q12q14). Three additional patients reported in the literature had interstitial 13q- deletions, involving slightly different though overlapping regions. The only chromosomal region consistently missing in all of these 4 cases appears to be part of the lightly staining band 13q14. We, therefore, propose this site as the precise location of a gene (or genes) involved in retinal development. Our patient lacked features of the classic 13q- or 13-ring syndrome, which involves deletion of a more distal portion of the 13 long arm. When compared to reported patients with Rb and 13q-, it became apparent that there may be a separate recognizable syndrome consisting of moderate growth and developmental delay, characteristic facies and external ears, and bilateral sporadic Rb, which is associated with an interstitial 13q- deletion. ( info)

5/2881. Deletion of 1q in a patient with acrofacial dysostosis.

    The Nager syndrome is the most common form of acrofacial dysostosis. Although autosomal dominant and recessive forms of acrofacial dysostosis have been described the molecular etiology of these disorders is unknown. We report on a child with acrofacial dysostosis, critical aortic stenosis, and a deletion of chromosome 1q involving the heterochromatic block and adjacent euchromatin. ( info)

6/2881. child with velocardiofacial syndrome and del (4)(q34.2): another critical region associated with a velocardiofacial syndrome-like phenotype.

    We report on a child with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis), submucosal cleft palate, hypernasal speech, learning difficulties, and right fifth finger anomaly manifestations, consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS); however, cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a small terminal deletion of the segment 4q34.2 to 4qter. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not identify a deletion of the critical region associated with VCFS. In previously reported 4q deletions with a breakpoint distal to 4q34.2, no cardiac defects or cleft of palate were reported. Our patient has a deletion of 4q34.2 to 4qter and has palate and cardiac involvement and minor learning difficulties, which implies that genes involved in heart and palate development lie distal to 4q34.2, and that the critical region for more severe mental retardation on 4q may reside proximal to 4q34.2. These results suggest that a distal 4q deletion can lead to a phenotype similar to VCFS and emphasizes the importance of searching for other karyotype abnormalities when a VCFS-like phenotype is present and a 22q deletion is not identified. ( info)

7/2881. monosomy 18q syndrome and atypical rett syndrome in a girl with an interstitial deletion (18)(q21.1q22.3).

    We describe a 6 1/2-year-old girl with an interstitial deletion of chromosome arm 18q (18q21.1q22.3). Her clinical manifestations are a combination of those found in monosomy 18q syndrome and those of rett syndrome. cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18, defined by molecular analysis with polymorphic markers as a de novo interstitial deletion, paternally derived. The findings typical of the 18q- syndrome included mental retardation, midface hypoplasia, and hypoplasia of labia majora, and those typical of rett syndrome were severe mental retardation, autistic behavior, inappropriate hand-washing movements, epilepsy, attacks of sighing and hyperventilation, and progressive scoliosis since the age of 5 years. She did not have microcephaly, and the mental delay was obvious from an early age without a period of normal development, which makes the diagnosis of rett syndrome atypical. Previously, a girl with mosaicism for a monosomy 18q associated with rett syndrome has been described. That girl had a terminal deletion of chromosome 18q, which seems to coincide in part with that in the present girl. It is possible that genes in the distal region of 18q are involved in the etiology of rett syndrome. ( info)

8/2881. Xp deletions associated with autism in three females.

    We report eight females with small deletions of the short arm of the x chromosome, three of whom showed features of autism. Our results suggest that there may be a critical region for autism in females with Xp deletions between the pseudoautosomal boundary and DXS7103. We hypothesise that this effect might be due either to the loss of function of a specific gene within the deleted region or to functional nullisomy resulting from X inactivation of the normal x chromosome. ( info)

9/2881. Delineation of two distinct 6p deletion syndromes.

    Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are relatively rare, the main features being developmental delay, craniofacial malformations, hypotonia, and defects of the heart and kidney, with hydrocephalus and eye abnormalities occurring in some instances. We present the molecular cytogenetic investigation of six cases with 6p deletions and two cases with unbalanced translocations resulting in monosomy of the distal part of 6p. The breakpoints of the deletions have been determined accurately by using 55 well-mapped probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The cases can be grouped into two distinct categories: interstitial deletions within the 6p22-p24 segment and terminal deletions within the 6p24-pter segment. Characteristics correlating with specific regions are: short neck, clinodactyly or syndactyly, brain, heart and kidney defects with deletions within 6p23-p24; and corneal opacities/iris coloboma/Rieger anomaly, hypertelorism and deafness with deletions of 6p25. The two cases with unbalanced translocations presented with a Larsen-like syndrome including some characteristics of the 6p deletion syndrome, which can be explained by the deletion of 6p25. Such investigation of cytogenetic abnormalities of 6p using FISH techniques and a defined set of probes will allow a direct comparison of reported cases and enable more accurate diagnosis as well as prognosis in patients with 6p deletions. ( info)

10/2881. Progressive dystonia in a child with chromosome 18p deletion, treated with intrathecal baclofen.

    We report a case of dystonia with a partial deletion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 18 and androgen insensitivity. Neurologic findings in the 18p syndrome are reported to include mental retardation, seizures, incoordination, tremor, and chorea. A 15-year-old girl with a denovo 18p deletion [karyotype 46, XY, del (18)(p11.1)] developed progressive asymmetric dystonia. She had oromotor apraxia and partial expressive aphasia since childhood, and she was able to partially communicate through elementary sign language. At the age of 15 years, she developed subacute and progressive choreic movements of the right arm, severe dystonic posturing of the left arm, and spastic dystonia in both legs. Her response to parenteral or oral benzodiazepines, oral trihexyphenidyl, benztropine mesylate, baclofen, and L-dopa were brief and inadequate. The response to intrathecal baclofen has been sustained over 18 months. In all likelihood, the 18p deletion syndrome affecting this patient is significant in the pathogenesis of her acquired dystonia. Chronic intrathecal baclofen therapy via pump has been effective in this case and should be considered as a treatment modality in carefully selected patients with dystonia. ( info)
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