Cases reported "Chromosome Disorders"

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1/79. prenatal diagnosis of a mosaic extra structurally abnormal chromosome by spectral karyotyping.

    A de novo mosaic extra structurally abnormal chromosome (ESAC) was detected in 33 per cent of cultured amniotic fluid cells from a pregnant woman. Neither Q-banding nor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) employing a DNA probe for nucleolar organizer region demonstrated the presence of satellites on the ESAC. spectral karyotyping (SKY) was performed in this prenatal case and led to a quick and accurate determination of the ESAC as chromosome 14 in origin. The SKY finding was confirmed by conventional FISH analysis using a chromosome 14 specific painting probe. Subsequent hybridizations with a centromeric probe and a 14q subtelomeric probe were also performed to further characterize the ESAC. Absence of (TTAGGG)n sequence on the ESAC, determined postnatally, suggested it is a ring chromosome 14. Genetic counselling concerning these findings was provided to the parents who chose to continue the pregnancy. The male infant had no apparent abnormal phenotype at birth.
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2/79. Duplication within chromosome region 15q11-q13 in a patient with similarities to prader-willi syndrome confirmed by region-specific and band-specific fish.

    We report on a patient presenting with mental retardation and obesity and a proximal duplication of chromosome 15. The patient shared some clinical signs with prader-willi syndrome. With a region-specific paint, generated by microdissection, a duplication in region 15q11.2-q13 was shown to be present. Subsequently, FISH with probes localized to chromosome region 15q11.2-q12 and microsatellite analysis was used to characterize this chromosome aberration further and an insertion duplication within the region frequently deleted in Prader-Willi and angelman syndrome was demonstrated.
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3/79. Coexistence of inverted Y, chromosome 15p and abnormal phenotype.

    In this study, we report conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies in a patient with multiple anomalies who is a carrier of a pericentric inversion on chromosome Y and a chromosome 15p . His parents were phenotypically normal. The father is a carrier of a pericentric inversion of chromosome Y, and the mother carries a large chromosome 15p variant. The inverted y chromosome was demonstrated by GTG- and CBG-banding, and DAPI-staining. The presence of extra chromosomal material on the chromosome 15p, that was C-band and DAPI positive, was demonstrated by trypsin G-banding. This suggests that the extra chromosomal material contained repetitive DNA sequences. NOR-staining indicated the presence a nuclear organizer region at the junction of the chromosome 15p material. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), with chromosome X and Y painting probes, alpha- and classic-satellite probes specific for chromosome Y, alpha- and beta-satellite III probes for chromosome 15 were used to elucidate the nature of both the inverted y chromosome and chromosome 15p . The result with chromosome X and Y painting probes, alpha-satellite, classic-satellite, and DYS59 probes specific for chromosome Y revealed the rearrangement of the y chromosome was an inv(Y)(p11.2q11.22 or q11.23). FISH with alpha-satellite and beta-satellite III probes for chromosome 15 demonstrated that the extra chromosomal material on the chromosome 15 probably represents beta-satellite III sequences. The possible roles of the simultaneous occurrence of an inverted Y and the amplified DNA sequence on chromosome 15p in the abnormal phenotype of the proband are discussed.
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4/79. Digynic triploid infant surviving for 46 days.

    We report on a triploid infant who survived for 46 days. She had severe intrauterine growth retardation, relative macrocephaly, and a small, noncystic placenta, which are manifestations compatible with type II phenotype. Cultured amniotic fluid cells, skin fibroblasts, cord blood, and peripheral blood lymphocytes all showed a nonmosaic 69,XXX karyotype. Analysis of chromosomal heteromorphisms and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms in the infant and her parents indicated that the extra haploid set in the infant resulted from nondisjunction at maternal second meiosis. Postzygotic, mitotic nondisjunction was ruled out because of the presence of both homozygous and heterozygous markers of maternal origin. A search of the literature demonstrated five triploid infants, including the girl we described, who survived 4 weeks or more, and the parental origin of whose triploidy was studied: four were digynic and one was diandric. These findings support the notion that type II triploids are digynic in parental origin and that they survive longer than type I, diandric triploids.
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5/79. Severe intra-uterine growth retardation in a patient with maternal uniparental disomy 22 and a 22-trisomic placenta.

    We report on a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 22 in a patient with severe intra-uterine growth retardation. Karyotyping of a placental tissue revealed non-mosaic trisomy 22, whereas lymphocyte chromosomes from the newborn were normal 46,XY. Microsatellite analysis using DNA extracted from white blood cells showed maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 22. Thus, the conceptus started as maternal trisomy due to meiotic non-disjunction, and trisomy rescue occurred subsequently through loss of the paternal homologue resulting in maternal uniparental disomy. Normal phenotypes in previous reports have suggested that maternal UPD 22 has no impact on the phenotype. Thus, growth retardation in this patient was probably caused by dysfunction of the trisomic placenta.
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6/79. A supernumerary marker chromosome originating from two different regions of chromosome 18.

    By random amplification of a microdissected chromosome using the degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and forward painting (microFISH), we characterised an extra structurally abnormal chromosome (ESAC) or supernumerary marker chromosome in a mentally retarded girl with a pattern of dysmorphic features. It could be clearly shown that the small marker chromosome originates from two different regions of chromosome 18, 18p11.1-->18q11.1 and 18q12.3-->18q21.1 respectively. Maternal origin of the de novo ESAC and biparental origin of the normal homologues of chromosome 18 were shown by PCR of several highly polymorphic microsatellites. In this case, application of microFISH was a prerequisite for rapid and precise characterisation of an ESAC. A definite identification of this discontinuous supernumerary marker chromosome would not have been possible using FISH with centromere specific probes or multicolour FISH approaches.
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7/79. Structural chromosomal anomaly in mental retardation.

    This article reports the structural chromosomal anomaly in three patients with mental retardation: (i) Proband was a five year old girl with reciprocal retardation (1; 2) (p32; q11) (ii) Proband, female of 14 years. Her karyotype showed translocation (1; 3) (q42; q13). The translocations were de novo in origin (iii) Proband showed variant 13 as the giant satellite over its short arm, and this was paternal in origin. Proband, eighteen months old male child had microcephaly and seizures. These two features may be because of autosomal recessive condition. This report emphasises the need for kayotyping to provide a clear cut diagnosis and appropriate counselling.
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8/79. Paternal meiotic origin of der(21;21)(q10;q10) mosaicism [46,XX/46, XX,der(21;21)(q10;q10), 21] in a girl with mild down syndrome.

    mosaicism for a derivative 21, der(21;21)(q10;q10), is a rare chromosomal abnormality. Since a normal cell line is present, mitotic origin is considered. Chromosome examination of a female with developmental delay and dysmorphic features compatible with mosaic trisomy 21 revealed a normal cell line and a second cell line with a der(21;21)(q10;q10) [46,XX/46,XX,der(21;21)(q10;q10), 21]. Molecular investigation with a panel of highly polymorphic microsatellites mapping to chromosome 21 demonstrated three different alleles, two of paternal and one of maternal origin. Therefore, either formation of the der(21;21)(q10;q10) during paternal meiosis with subsequent loss of the der(21;21)(q10;q10) and mitotic reduplication of the maternal homologue in the normal cell line, or more likely a zygote with paternally derived trisomy 21 and subsequent mitotic formation of the der(21;21)(q10;q10) have to be considered. This case again shows that mammalian chromosome aberrations may have a more complex mechanism of formation than was previously thought.
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9/79. Prenatal molecular cytogenetic diagnosis of partial tetrasomy 10p due to neocentromere formation in an inversion duplication analphoid marker chromosome.

    Neocentromeres are fully functional centromeres found on rearranged or marker chromosomes that have separated from endogenous centromeres. Neocentromeres often result in partial tri- or tetrasomy because their formation confers mitotic stability to acentric chromosome fragments that would normally be lost. We describe the prenatal identification and characterization of a de novo supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) containing a neocentromere in a 20-wk fetus by the combined use of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). GTG-banding of fetal metaphases revealed a 47,XY, mar karyotype in 100% of cultured amniocytes; parental karyotypes were both normal. Although sequential tricolor FISH using chromosome-specific painting probes identified a chromosome 10 origin of the marker, a complete panel of chromosome-specific centromeric satellite dna probes failed to hybridize to any portion of the marker. The presence of a neocentromere on the marker chromosome was confirmed by the absence of hybridization of an all-human-centromere alpha-satellite DNA probe, which hybridizes to all normal centromeres, and the presence of centromere protein (CENP)-C, which is associated specifically with active kinetochores. Based on CGH analysis and FISH with a chromosome 10p subtelomeric probe, the marker was found to be an inversion duplication of the distal portion of chromosome 10p. Thus, the proband's karyotype was 47,XY, inv dup(10)(pter-->p14 approximately 15::p14 approximately 15-->neo-->pter), which is the first report of partial tetrasomy 10p resulting from an analphoid marker chromosome with a neocentromere. This study illustrates the use of several molecular strategies in distinguishing centric alphoid markers from neocentric analphoid markers.
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10/79. Molecular characterization of tetralogy of fallot within Digeorge critical region of the chromosome 22.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the levels of heterozygosity and microdeletion of specific loci within the DiGeorge critical region (del22q11) are associated with different phenotypes of tetralogy of fallot (TF). Examinations were conducted on 84 sporadic TF patients and their unaffected parents for del22q11, using the following 9 simple tandem repeat polymorphic microsatellite markers: D22S420, D22S427, D22S941, D22S944, D22S264, D22S311, D22S425, D22S303, D22S257. The microdeletions were confirmed using quantitative PCR with markers TUPLE1, exon 2 of the UFD1L gene, and D22S264; the boundaries of these microdeletions were estimated using genotypic analyses of the unaffected family members. The del22q11 was identified in 14 patients (16.6%). The boundary of the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO) in these 14 TF patients was identified, proximally using D22S427 and distally using the TUPLE 1 gene. The deletion of exon 2 of the UFD1L gene and TUPLE1 gene was identified in 13 patients (13/14 cases; 93%). The SRO in TF patients with del22q11 was at or close to the ADU breakpoint and centromeric to the UFD1L gene. The level of heterozygosity for the marker D22S944 in TF patients without del22q11 (n = 70) was found to be significantly lower than expected. overall, this study demonstrated the significantly low level of heterozygosity within DiGeorge critical region in TF patients with or without del22q11. Our results suggest that the genetic factors leading to DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome might also be partly responsible for TF phenotypes.
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