Cases reported "Chronic Disease"

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1/128. Extraction of a rubber bullet from a bronchus after 1 year: complete resolution of chronic pulmonary damage.

    inhalation of a foreign body (FB) into the bronchial tree rarely occurs asymptomatically and, if leading to recurrent pneumonia, can be very difficult to diagnose. The present report deals with the case of a 10-year-old boy who had three episodes of pneumonia in the left lower lobe caused by the asymptomatic inhalation of a FB 12 months before. Standard thoracic CT, done during the third episode, revealed a slight reduction in the volume of the left lung with air bronchograms, multiple areas of bronchiectasis, and parenchymal consolidation of a segment of the lower lobe. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a FB at the distal end of the left lower lobar bronchus, surrounded by granulation tissue and fully obstructing the anterior basal segmental bronchus. High-resolution CT (HRCT) images showed an inverted C-shaped image obstructing a bronchus. Removal of the FB was successful only with rigid bronchoscopy under total anesthesia. The FB was an air-pistol rubber bullet that the boy remembered playing with 12 months before. Two months after removal of the FB (ie, 14 months from its asymptomatic inhalation) and treatment with oral steroids, antibiotics, and respiratory physiotherapy, the patient recovered completely, and HRCT showed complete normalization of the lung. We conclude that, when the radiographic density of the FB is greater than the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, HRCT can reveal the FB, and diagnostic flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy can be avoided.
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2/128. Chronic toxic encephalopathy in a painter exposed to mixed solvents.

    This paper describes symptoms and findings in a 57-year-old painter who had been exposed to various organic solvents for over 30 years. He began to work as a painter at 16 years of age, frequently working in poorly ventilated areas; he used solvents to remove paint from the skin of his arms and hands at the end of each work shift. The patient and his family noticed impaired short-term memory function and changes in affect in his early forties, which progressed until after he stopped working and was thus no longer exposed to paints and solvents. After the patient's exposures had ended, serial neuropsychological testing revealed persistent cognitive deficits without evidence of further progression, and improvement in some domains. magnetic resonance imaging revealed global and symmetrical volume loss, involving more white than gray matter. The findings in this patient are consistent with chronic toxic encephalopathy and are differentiated from other dementing processes such as Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct (vascular) dementia, and alcoholic dementia. Previous descriptions in the literature of persistent neurobehavioral effects associated with chronic exposure to organic solvents corroborate the findings in this case.
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3/128. Change in optic disc topography associated with diurnal variation in intraocular pressure.

    PURPOSE: A case demonstrating significant changes in optic disc topography from variation in intraocular pressure (IOP) is demonstrated. methods: Within a single 24-hour period, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopic images were obtained in the left eye of a patient during an IOP peak (60 mmHg) and during an IOP trough (18 mmHg). RESULTS: During an IOP trough, paired t tests showed significant reduction in cup area, cup volume, mean cup depth, and maximum cup depth, and a significant increase in rim area and cup-to-disc (CD) ratio. CONCLUSION: Under certain conditions, optic disc topography may be affected by diurnal variations in IOP.
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4/128. Post-traumatic pseudocyst of the spleen: sclerotherapy with ethanol.

    We report a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a chronic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst using alcohol as the sclerosing agent. A 26-year-old man presented with a symptomatic cystic mass located in the spleen. Aspiration of 300 ml of fluid was only temporarily effective, and therefore a drainage catheter was placed 3 days later. After histopathologic and microbiologic exclusion of a malignant or infectious origin, local sclerotherapy with alcohol was performed because of recurrence after percutaneous drainage. This therapy was repeated six times within 2 weeks. Two weeks later, the remaining volume was determined to be 16 ml. Six months after treatment the cyst was no longer visible. To our knowledge this is the first case of a chronic post-traumatic splenic cyst treated with alcohol. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of a symptomatic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst may be an alternative to surgical treatment.
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5/128. The location of chronic pregnancy hypertension on the vasoconstriction-volume spectrum: working hypothesis.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether volume loading is a factor in chronic pregnancy hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: Five patients with chronic hypertension performed home self-monitoring daily with a noninvasive pressure transducer from a fingertip. Determinants of mean arterial pressure were computed from the pressure data and a concurrent electrocardiogram. For this study blood pressure and rapid ejection time, which is an empiric indicator of arterial compliance, were evaluated during antihypertensive therapy. Data were transmitted by facsimile to the hospital. RESULTS: One patient with hypertension who was admitted to the study at 10 weeks' gestation became normotensive with a diuretic (furosemide) alone. Medication was discontinued at 23 weeks' gestation. This patient remained normotensive until delivery at 41 weeks' gestation. blood pressure was controlled with furosemide combined with nifedipine and labetolol in the other 4 cases. Three patients were studied with concurrent blood pressure and rapid ejection time measurements made before and after antihypertensive medication. All 3 showed decreases in these measurements with medication. CONCLUSION: Both volume excess and vasoconstriction should be considered in the pathogenesis of chronic pregnancy hypertension.
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6/128. Withdrawal from clozapine: the "rebound phenomenon".

    clozapine is an "atypical" antipsychotic agent for treating previously resistant schizophrenic patients. Its main advantages over "typical" neuroleptics are low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects and its capacity to induce therapeutic response in previously treated refractory patients. However, withdrawal from clozapine has been observed to lead to "atypical" clinical characteristics or a "rebound phenomenon," manifested in two interwoven clinical forms: (1) psychotic exacerbation, and (2) cholinergic rebound. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of this phenomenon is postulated to be a result of cholinergic supersensitivity. In this paper, the "rebound phenomenon" will be discussed and exemplified by three case histories in which abrupt cessation of clozapine led to serious deterioration and psychotic exacerbation, and one case in which gradual titration from the drug was employed in order to preempt this hazardous occurrence.
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7/128. Ultraviolet B irradiation: a new therapeutic concept for the management of oral manifestations of graft-versus-host disease.

    Ultraviolet irradiation inhibits the proliferative responses of lymphoid cells to mitogens and alloantigens by inactivation of T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. Its immunosuppressive capacity led to the introduction of UV irradiation into clinical practice for the treatment of dermatologic manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease. The cumulative experience with psoralen-UV-A rays in the treatment of cutaneous and oral graft-versus-host disease was the incentive for the application of oral UV-B rays in 2 patients with oral graft-versus-host disease signs and symptoms after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Intraoral UV-B irradiation (0.02 mJ/cm(2)) was administered 2 or 3 times per week on an ambulatory basis; the dose was increased by 0. 02 mJ/cm(2) every fourth session. Both patients responded early and satisfactorily, displaying only minimal side effects at a relatively low cumulative dose. Intraoral UV-B proved a valuable modality in the treatment of resistant chronic oral graft-versus-host disease.
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8/128. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase for 16 years: ongoing hematological remission and late minor cytogenetic response under minimal interferon maintenance therapy.

    philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia was diagnosed in a now 37-year old woman 16 years ago. Induction therapy with hydroxyurea and busulphan led to hematological remission lasting for about 4 months without treatment. Then, intermittent busulphan over a 7 years' period, and subsequently, alpha-interferon was given, of which ever decreasing doses (currently 3.5 megaunits interferon-alpha-2c once every 14 days) have been required to keep leukocyte counts in the target range. Although no major cytogenetic response was achieved by maintenance therapy, the patient has now been in an ongoing chronic phase of disease for 16 years. This is a rare case of indolent chronic myelogenous leukemia, in which, for undefined reasons, the leukemic cells have not acquired the capacity to transform leading to disease acceleration, which usually is imminent after a few years.
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9/128. Gastric varices with splenic vein occlusion treated by splenic arterial embolization.

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in August 1997 with enlarged gastric varices. Computed tomography (CT) showed splenic vein occlusion, gastric varices, and extra-gastric wall collateral veins. color flow images of gastric varices were clearly visualized, and the velocity in the gastric varices was 19.6 cm/s via endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS). The patient was diagnosed with gastric varices according to angiographic findings of splenic vein occlusion, and splenic arterial embolization was performed. Two weeks after the splenic arterial embolization, CT showed peripheral areas of low attenuation in the spleen, due to splenic infarction, with 70% of the spleen volume showing low attenuation. Eight months after the splenic arterial embolization, ECDUS revealed a decrease in gastric variceal color flow images, with the velocity in the gastric varices being 10.3 cm/s.
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10/128. Chronic neutropenia: Response to plasma with high colony-stimulating activity.

    A child with repeated infections was immunologically normal but was found to have neutropenia with periodic elevations of the absolute mature polymorphonuclear count at 21-day intervals. Immediately following the PMN rise, bone marrow morphology and in vitro cultures demonstrated a maturation arrest at the myelocyte stage with an increase in proliferative capacity. His cycle was not altered by infusions of normal plasma or by injections of epinephrine or typhoid vaccine. Infusion of 10 ml/kg of "stimulated" plasma from donors reactive to TV, obtained 60 minutes following immunization, resulted in an out-of-phase rise in PMN cells and clinical improvement. in vitro assays, using normal or patient marrow, detected high levels of colony-stimulating activity only in those plasma samples that were effective in the patient. These observations support a role of CSA as a physiologic regulator of granulopoiesis in man.
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