Cases reported "Chronic Disease"

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1/7622. Latent coeliac disease. Personal experience.

    Latent coeliac disease (L.C.D.) is an extremely rare condition to describe. In this study we analyzed three cases of patients affected by L.C.D.: two of them suffered from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and the other one from infantile cerebral palsy and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We confirm the existence of this form of coeliac disease (C.D.), by means of duodenal biopsy, and stress the importance of an early diagnosis in order to prevent the serious consequences caused by untreated C.D.
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2/7622. Chronic clostridium septicum infection of a tibial fracture: a case report.

    An open transverse fracture of the mid-shaft of the tibia of a professional footballer became infected by clostridium septicum and, after early compression plating, required surgical intervention on three further occasions and extensive antibiotic treatment before healing occurred. Clostridial infection is a recognized complication of open fractures contaminated with soil, and the necrotizing toxins produced by the C. septicum were probably responsible for the persistence of this infection. infection occurred in less than 1 per cent of our series of 215 operations of compression plating of fresh fractures of the tibial shaft. infection by clostridium species is a serious complication of open fractures. This patient did not show the spreading inflammation and necrosis, or the marked systemic upset, characteristic of acute clostridial infection, but persistent local infection necessitated prolonged surgical and antibiotic treatment.
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3/7622. Aortic dissection in young patients with chronic hypertension.

    We describe four patients aged 14 to 21 years who developed acute aortic dissection. In three of the four patients, the course was fatal, despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention. All four patients had sustained systemic hypertension related to chronic renal insufficiency. The patients had no other identifiable risk factors for aortic dissection, including congenital cardiovascular disease, advanced atherosclerosis, vasculitis, trauma, pregnancy, or family history of aortic dissection. Although aortic dissection is rare in individuals younger than 40 years of age, young patients with sustained systemic hypertension are at increased risk for this serious and often fatal condition. physicians must be aware of this rare complication of hypertension and consider aortic dissection in the differential diagnosis of unusual chest, abdominal, and back pain in hypertensive children, adolescents, and young adults.
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4/7622. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy: pathological evidence of inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Chronic immune and inflammatory motor neuropathies may resemble motor neuron disease, and the distinction may be particularly difficult if conduction block or GM1 antibodies are absent. The pathology of this axonal type of chronic motor neuropathy has not been characterized except in a few cases associated with paraproteinemia. We describe the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological findings in a patient with a chronic motor axonal neuropathy, normal immunoelectrophoresis, and no GM1 antibodies. At autopsy the spinal cord was normal with the exception of chromatolytic motor neurons. All the ventral roots were greatly thinned. Of 10 mixed nerves and numerous spinal roots sampled, five showed areas of perineurial, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. There was severe axonal loss in the motor roots that was not as evident in mixed nerves, and the sensory nerves and roots were virtually unaffected. Our findings suggest that a chronic motor axonal neuropathy without paraproteinemia or GM1 antibodies may, in some cases, result from an inflammatory process.
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5/7622. The changes in human spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons after spinal cord injury.

    We have applied conventional histochemical, immunocytochemical and morphometric techniques to study the changes within the human spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) after spinal cord injury. SPNs are localized within the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of the lateral horn at the thoraco-lumbar level of the spinal cord and are the major contributors to central cardiovascular control. SPNs in different thoracic segments in the normal spinal cord were similar in soma size. SPNs in the IML were also identified using immunoreactivity to choline acetyltransferase. Soma area of SPNs was 400.7 15 microm2 and 409.9 /-22 microm2 at the upper thoracic (T3) and middle thoracic (T7) segments, respectively. In the spinal cord obtained from a person who survived for 2 weeks following a spinal cord injury at T5, we found a significant decrease in soma area of the SPNs in the segments below the site of injury: soma area of SPNs at T8 was 272.9 /-11 microm2. At T1 the soma area was 418 /-19 microm2. In the spinal cord obtained from a person who survived 23 years after cord injury at T3, the soma area of SPNs above (T1) and below (T7) the site of injury was similar (416.2 /-19 and 425.0 /-20 microm2 respectively). The findings demonstrate that the SPNs in spinal segments caudal to the level of the lesion undergo a significant decrease of their size 2 weeks after spinal cord injury resulting in complete transection of the spinal cord. The impaired cardiovascular control after spinal cord injury may be accounted for, in part, by the described changes of the SPNs. The SPNs in spinal segments caudal to the injury were of normal size in the case studied 23 years after the injury, suggesting that the atrophy observed at 2 weeks is transient. More studies are necessary to establish the precise time course of these morphological changes in the spinal preganglionic neurons.
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6/7622. Cortical dysplasia with angiodysgenesis and chronic inflammation in multifocal partial epilepsy.

    A 25-year-old man with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy developed right occipital lobe seizures and a progressive right homonymous hemianopia. MRI showed diffuse enhancement of the left temporoparieto-occipital white matter and cortical thickening of the left medial temporal lobe. The resected temporal lobe revealed cortical dysplasia and angiodysplasia with foci of more recent ischemic necrosis and chronic inflammation as an explanation for the clinical deterioration.
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7/7622. Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature.

    Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma.
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8/7622. Chronic compartment syndrome affecting the lower limb: MIBI perfusion imaging as an alternative to pressure monitoring: two case reports.

    Intracompartmental pressure monitoring remains the primary method of diagnosing chronic compartment syndrome. MIBI perfusion imaging is widely available and offers a radionuclear imaging technique for diagnosing this condition. Although the results are not identical with those from pressure monitoring, MIBI may offer a useful screening test for this condition.
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9/7622. Diffuse alopecia with stem cell folliculitis: chronic diffuse alopecia areata or a distinct entity?

    A 34-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of slowly progressive diffuse nonscarring alopecia with loss of hair density. scalp biopsy specimens showed increased miniaturized follicles and an asymmetric wedge-shaped lymphocytic infiltrate concentrated on the stem cell-rich region at the point of entry of sebaceous ducts and at bulge-like regions of multiple follicles. Several hair bulbs emerging at the stem cell compartment also were inflamed, but the hair bulbs in the deeper dermis and subcutis were spared. I speculate whether these findings may represent a stem cell folliculitis similar to the reaction pattern previously observed in graft versus host disease and in androgenetic alopecia. The additional presence of peribulbar lymphocytic inflammation could indicate that the patient had a variant of alopecia areata. The clinical presentation of a slowly progressive diffuse alopecia without progression to clinically recognizable alopecia areata and the prominent lymphocytic inflammation involving the stem cell compartment may prompt a reexamination of similar cases currently classified as chronic diffuse alopecia areata. The concept that lymphocytes can inhibit stem cell function without destroying the stem cells themselves needs consideration.
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10/7622. lobomycosis. Report of the eighth Colombian case and review of the literature.

    The eighth Colombian case of lobomycosis and the one hundredth in the world literature is reported here. The patient was a 38-year-old female who showed a bilobed mass on the left forearm which had appeared at the site from where a similar lesion had been excised 19 years previously. She had always lived in a rural area, located in the humid subtropical forest. The tissue reactions to the fungus as well as the fruitless attempts to culture it are described. An analysis of the relevant literature is made and suggestions for experimental animal models are given in the text.
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