Cases reported "Chronic Disease"

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1/889. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy: pathological evidence of inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Chronic immune and inflammatory motor neuropathies may resemble motor neuron disease, and the distinction may be particularly difficult if conduction block or GM1 antibodies are absent. The pathology of this axonal type of chronic motor neuropathy has not been characterized except in a few cases associated with paraproteinemia. We describe the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological findings in a patient with a chronic motor axonal neuropathy, normal immunoelectrophoresis, and no GM1 antibodies. At autopsy the spinal cord was normal with the exception of chromatolytic motor neurons. All the ventral roots were greatly thinned. Of 10 mixed nerves and numerous spinal roots sampled, five showed areas of perineurial, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. There was severe axonal loss in the motor roots that was not as evident in mixed nerves, and the sensory nerves and roots were virtually unaffected. Our findings suggest that a chronic motor axonal neuropathy without paraproteinemia or GM1 antibodies may, in some cases, result from an inflammatory process.
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2/889. Diffuse alopecia with stem cell folliculitis: chronic diffuse alopecia areata or a distinct entity?

    A 34-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of slowly progressive diffuse nonscarring alopecia with loss of hair density. scalp biopsy specimens showed increased miniaturized follicles and an asymmetric wedge-shaped lymphocytic infiltrate concentrated on the stem cell-rich region at the point of entry of sebaceous ducts and at bulge-like regions of multiple follicles. Several hair bulbs emerging at the stem cell compartment also were inflamed, but the hair bulbs in the deeper dermis and subcutis were spared. I speculate whether these findings may represent a stem cell folliculitis similar to the reaction pattern previously observed in graft versus host disease and in androgenetic alopecia. The additional presence of peribulbar lymphocytic inflammation could indicate that the patient had a variant of alopecia areata. The clinical presentation of a slowly progressive diffuse alopecia without progression to clinically recognizable alopecia areata and the prominent lymphocytic inflammation involving the stem cell compartment may prompt a reexamination of similar cases currently classified as chronic diffuse alopecia areata. The concept that lymphocytes can inhibit stem cell function without destroying the stem cells themselves needs consideration.
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3/889. Focal malakoplakia in chronic periapical periodontitis.

    AIMS: Three cases of chronic periapical periodontitis including focal areas with malakoplakia changes are reported. methods AND RESULTS: These areas included both von Hansemann-type macrophages and periodic acid-Schiff-positive, iron- and calcium-containing concretions. Some concretions corresponded to spherules with a targetoid configuration, thus fitting the morphological criteria for classical Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of the cases of malakoplakia that have been reported in the literature corresponded to a characteristic, fairly homogeneous lesion, but a few instances of focal malakoplakia have been described in various chronic conditions. These considerations support the opinion that the local conditions for the production of Michaelis-Gutmann bodies may occur focally in diseases characterized by macrophage accumulation.
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4/889. optic atrophy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy.

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic, multifocal disorder usually defined as limited to the peripheral nervous system. Multifocal motor neuropathy, an acquired demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block affecting motor neurons only, may be a pathogenically distinct syndrome or a predominantly motor variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. central nervous system demyelination including optic neuropathy has been reported uncommonly previously in these entities. We report two cases and review the literature on the possible association of optic neuropathy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy.
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5/889. Disseminated nocardiosis in a bone marrow transplant recipient with chronic GVHD.

    We describe a case of disseminated nocardiosis in a 53-year-old male allogeneic marrow recipient with chronic GVHD, 15 years post BMT. Six months prior to admission he was treated for recurrent chronic GVHD with corticosteroids with a good response. He deteriorated subsequently while still on steroids requiring admission for fever, anorexia, weight loss, productive cough and progressive dyspnoea. On admission he had multiple nodular lesions on chest roentgenogram and subsequently grew nocardia farcinica in blood culture. N. farcinica is rare post BMT, has a high mortality, is resistant to various antibiotics and needs prolonged antimicrobial therapy. We report the successful management of our patient with single agent trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.
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6/889. Incomplete nondisplaced tibial osteotomy for treatment of osteoarthritic knee pain.

    Intraosseous venous hypertension is considered a significant factor in the production of knee pain secondary to degenerative arthrosis, thus vascular decompression by means of tibial osteotomy is a rational option for treatment of selected patients. A preliminary report is presented of six patients with symptoms of primary or secondary degenerative arthrosis who were treated by incomplete nondisplaced proximal tibial osteotomy with good or excellent results. These patients were refractory to nonoperative treatment and were not deemed suitable candidates for angulated osteotomy, arthroscopic surgery alone, or total knee arthroplasty. patients ranged in age from 36 to 61 years (mean age: 47 years). Follow-up ranged from .8 to 6.7 years (mean: 3.1 years). The subjects were studied postoperatively by interview, physical examination, radiographs, and bone scans. Results were assessed using the knee rating system of The Hospital for Special Surgery.
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7/889. Low power laser therapy and analgesic action.

    OBJECTIVE: The semiconductor or laser diode (GaAs, 904 nm) is the most appropriate choice in pain reduction therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Low-power density laser acts on the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, increasing the change of PGG2 and PGH2 into PG12 (also called prostacyclin, or epoprostenol). The last is the main product of the arachidonic acid into the endothelial cells and into the smooth muscular cells of vessel walls, that have a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action. methods: Treatment was performed on 372 patients (206 women and 166 men) during the period between May 1987 and January 1997. The patients, whose ages ranged from 25 to 70 years, with a mean age of 45 years, suffered from rheumatic, degenerative, and traumatic pathologies as well as cutaneous ulcers. The majority of patients had been seen by orthopedists and rheumatologists and had undergone x-ray examination. All patients had received drug-based treatment and/or physiotherapy with poor results; 5 patients had also been irradiated with He:Ne and CO2 lasers. Two-thirds were experiencing acute symptomatic pain, while the others suffered long-term pathology with recurrent crises. We used a pulsed diode laser, GaAs 904 nm wavelength once per day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 2-day interval. The average number of applications was 12. We irradiated the trigger points, access points to the joint, and striated muscles adjacent to relevant nerve roots. RESULTS: We achieved very good results, especially in cases of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the cervical vertebrae, sport-related injuries, epicondylitis, and cutaneous ulcers, and with cases of osteoarthritis of the coxa. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 904-nm diode laser has substantially reduced the symptoms as well as improved the quality of life of these patient, ultimately postponing the need for surgery.
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8/889. Conduction block and continuous motor unit activity in chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    The term continuous motor unit activity (CMUA) may be used to refer to the involuntary, sustained activity of motor units caused by hyperactivity of peripheral motor nerves. CMUA has been reported in association with acquired neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The precise mechanism responsible for the excess muscle activity is not defined, but the activity is believed to originate in the peripheral nerves, perhaps at sites of focal demyelination. We describe a case of an acquired, demyelinating neuropathy associated with distal motor conduction block in which CMUA was observed in muscles innervated by blocked axons. Despite the prolonged disease duration of nearly 40 years, marked clinical and electrophysiological improvement as well as resolution of the CMUA were observed following immunosuppressive therapy. A relationship between the chronic motor conduction block and the excess muscle activity is postulated.
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9/889. Extraction of a rubber bullet from a bronchus after 1 year: complete resolution of chronic pulmonary damage.

    inhalation of a foreign body (FB) into the bronchial tree rarely occurs asymptomatically and, if leading to recurrent pneumonia, can be very difficult to diagnose. The present report deals with the case of a 10-year-old boy who had three episodes of pneumonia in the left lower lobe caused by the asymptomatic inhalation of a FB 12 months before. Standard thoracic CT, done during the third episode, revealed a slight reduction in the volume of the left lung with air bronchograms, multiple areas of bronchiectasis, and parenchymal consolidation of a segment of the lower lobe. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a FB at the distal end of the left lower lobar bronchus, surrounded by granulation tissue and fully obstructing the anterior basal segmental bronchus. High-resolution CT (HRCT) images showed an inverted C-shaped image obstructing a bronchus. Removal of the FB was successful only with rigid bronchoscopy under total anesthesia. The FB was an air-pistol rubber bullet that the boy remembered playing with 12 months before. Two months after removal of the FB (ie, 14 months from its asymptomatic inhalation) and treatment with oral steroids, antibiotics, and respiratory physiotherapy, the patient recovered completely, and HRCT showed complete normalization of the lung. We conclude that, when the radiographic density of the FB is greater than the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, HRCT can reveal the FB, and diagnostic flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy can be avoided.
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10/889. hyperparathyroidism and chronic pancreatitis.

    hyperparathyroidism is a rare cause of pancreatitis. The nature of the relationship between the two entities is not well defined, i.e. is it casual or causal? We describe 2 patients with chronic pancreatitis and hyperparathyroidism who presented with epigastric pain and were initially treated unsuccessfully by surgical drainage of the pancreatic ducts. In 1 case the hyperparathyroidism was only recognised after the pancreatic surgery. In both the symptoms of chronic pancreatitis responded well to parathyroidectomy. We believe that our cases add support to a causal relationship between pancreatitis and hyperparathyroidism. Whatever the true relationship, management of these patients should initially be directed at the hyperparathyroidism, followed by appropriate treatment of the pancreatitis.
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