Cases reported "Chronic Disease"

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1/161. Diaschisis in chronic viral encephalitis with Koshevnikov syndrome.

    The authors report a 61-year-old man with chronic viral encephalitis and Koshevnikov syndrome occurring 42 months after initial symptom of right hemiparesis. Serial computed tomography of the brain showed changes in the attenuation of the left temporal lobe lesion over time. Magnetic resonance images of the brain showed enlargement of left temporoparietooccipital lobes with cortical gyral enhancement on T1-weighted images following intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA. 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission computerized tomography showed increased radioactivity and hyperperfusion in the left temporoparietal region with paradoxically decreased local tissue perfusion at the contralateral right hemisphere. Follow-up magnetic resonance images of the brain 4 years later showed atrophy of bilateral cerebral hemispheres. We postulate that a "transcallosal diaschisis" with subsequent degeneration is a possible mechanism. A brain biopsy from the left temporal lobe lesion showed pictures compatible with viral encephalitis probably herpes simplex encephalitis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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2/161. Chronic herpes simplex virus type I glossitis in an immunocompromised man.

    herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the tongue commonly accompanies acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. However, recurrent infection of the tongue is exceptional and is restricted to immunocompromised individuals. A 57-year-old man with corticosteroid-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sciatica presented with a chronic median glossitis due to HSV-1. The main clinical and histological feature was massive necrosis of the entire mucosa. immunohistochemistry demonstrated a considerable amount of HSV gB, gC and gD envelope glycoproteins dispersed in the chorion. In contrast, HSV-1 dna was detected only in a limited number of epithelial cells using in situ hybridization. The extent of necrosis and the pattern of viral dna and envelope protein distribution represent unique features of median herpetic glossitis, which are not found in more common types of HSV infection.
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ranking = 0.023101315501458
keywords = herpes
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3/161. sarcoidosis-related anterior uveitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus.

    BACKGROUND: This is the first ophthalmic report--to our knowledge--of an anterior uveitis secondary to sarcoidosis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). Other reported causes of uveitis in hiv-infected patients have included hiv, herpes zoster, tuberculosis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcus, rifabutin prophylaxis for mycobacterium, and protease inhibitors such as ritonavir and indinavir. uveitis secondary to sarcoidosis in the non-hiv population is classically seen in young, female, African-American patients. There are rare reports, found exclusively in the pulmonary literature, of sarcoidosis in hiv-infected patients. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old African-American male infected with hiv was treated for chronic recurrent anterior uveitis secondary to sarcoidosis. His sarcoidosis was diagnosed 1 month earlier, along with the onset of his uveitis. During the previous 6 years he has been treated with anti-hiv antivirals as well as prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. To date, his infectious disease specialist continues to treat his hiv and systemic sarcoidosis. CONCLUSION: patients with hiv infection in whom sarcoidosis with secondary uveitis develops are very rare. Management of these patients requires careful use of topical and oral steroidal anti-inflammatories to control ocular and systemic sequelae of sarcoidosis. This case initiates some interesting questions about the immunology of sarcoidosis and its presence in immunocompromised patients. Use of steroids in an immunocompromised patient is clinically complex. Further clinical study is needed to elicit the full clinical significance of sarcoidosis and hiv infection.
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ranking = 0.026222455898942
keywords = zoster, herpes zoster, herpes
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4/161. Rasmussen encephalitis in childhood.

    Six patients admitted to the Department of Pediatric neurology at Hacettepe University Children's Hospital between 1992 and 1997 with a clinical diagnosis of Rasmussen encephalitis received surgical treatment for their intractable epilepsy. MRI, SPECT and WADA tests were performed in patients with an epileptic focus demonstrated on routine or long-term video EEG monitoring. Viral studies using the PCR methodology were performed in cases with histopathological evidence of Rasmussen encephalitis. The ages of these patients ranged between 7 and 16 years, and the mean age at onset of seizures was 7.1 /-2.2 years. In four patients seizures presented as epilepsia partialis continua and were refractory to anticonvulsive drug therapy. In three cases intravenous immunoglobulin therapy yielded temporary and partial improvement in seizure control. The mean presurgical follow-up duration was 2.04 1.74 years, and early surgical intervention for epilepsy was performed in one case. The surgical approach selected for the treatment of epilepsy was resective surgery with electrocorticography. The mean postoperative follow-up duration was 32.3 17.2 months. seizures were fully controlled in one patient, in whom surgery was performed 3 months after the seizures first started. Early surgical intervention may provide histopathological evidence for diagnosis as well as effective seizure control.
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ranking = 0.85219257524969
keywords = encephalitis
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5/161. Coexistence of a ganglioglioma and Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    A small number of recent reports have documented coexisting cerebral pathologic entities in patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with refractory seizures and was found to have both a ganglioglioma and Rasmussen's encephalitis of the same hemisphere. The patient ultimately underwent a functional hemispherectomy with excellent seizure control. We also review the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of both gangliogliomas and Rasmussen's encephalitis. We hope that the addition of this patient to the small but growing literature on dual pathology in Rasmussen's encephalitis may help shed some light on the etiology of this mysterious disease.
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ranking = 1.1362567669996
keywords = encephalitis
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6/161. A 4-year-old with pica, progressive incoordination, and decreased responsiveness.

    This article reports a typical case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The patient contracted measles as an infant during the 1989 to 1991 united states measles epidemic. At 4 1/2 years of age, he developed behavioral changes and quickly progressed through the typical clinical stages of SSPE. His EEG was characteristic. serum and CSF measles immunoglobulin g were markedly elevated. He remains alive but is vegetative. To our knowledge, this is the first case of SSPE stemming from the 1989 to 1991 measles epidemic. Because infants--the group at highest risk to develop SSPE--were most severely affected by this measles outbreak, other cases of SSPE stemming from this epidemic may occur.
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ranking = 0.14203209587495
keywords = encephalitis
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7/161. The value of serial auditory brainstem response in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    A total of 98 serial auditory brainstem responses from 17 patients (11 boys and 6 girls) with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared with their clinical course and stages. These patients were exposed to measles early in life (at 1.8 /- 1.4 years old) with the average onset of the disease at 8.8 /- 0.7 years of age. The main abnormalities of their auditory brainstem responses were a prolongation of waves I, III, and V, and of the I to V interpeak interval. Wave V thresholds were also elevated. These effects on the auditory brainstem responses started 1 to 2 years after onset of neurologic signs. I to V interpeak latency became prolonged with the progress of clinical stages, especially in Jabbour's clinically advanced stage IV. In two patients with an acute progressive type of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, very rapid deterioration with a distorted wave pattern of later components was observed. These findings suggest rostrocaudal progression in the central nervous system of both long-term and fulminant cases.
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ranking = 0.85219257524969
keywords = encephalitis
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8/161. Following the clues to neuropathic pain. Distribution and other leads reveal the cause and the treatment approach.

    Neuropathic pain can seem enigmatic at first because it can last indefinitely and often a cause is not evident. However, heightened awareness of typical characteristics, such as the following, makes identification fairly easy: The presence of certain accompanying conditions (e.g., diabetes, hiv or herpes zoster infection, multiple sclerosis) pain described as shooting, stabbing, lancinating, burning, or searing pain worse at night pain following anatomic nerve distribution pain in a numb or insensate site The presence of allodynia Neuropathic pain responds poorly to standard pain therapies and usually requires specialized medications (e.g., anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, opioid analgesics) for optimal control. Successful pain control is enhanced with use of a systematic approach consisting of disease modification, local or regional measures, and systemic therapy.
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ranking = 0.026222455898942
keywords = zoster, herpes zoster, herpes
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9/161. magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. METHOD: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. RESULTS: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weighted images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSION: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.
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ranking = 1.0779071119704
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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10/161. Bell's palsy during interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis c infection in patients with haemorrhagic disorders.

    Two adult patients with life-long severe haemorrhagic disorders commenced on interferon-alpha2b therapy for chronic hepatitis c infection. Both developed Bell's palsy several weeks after commencing therapy, They were started on steroids and, in addition, the first patient discontinued interferon-alpha2b therapy while the second patient elected to continue with therapy. In both cases facial paralysis improved over the ensuing weeks. Bell's palsy is often idiopathic but has been reported. in association with herpesviruses. It is not a recognised complication of chronic hepatitis b or C infection, or interferon-alpha2b therapy. However, the interferons are associated with numerous adverse reactions including various neuropsychiatric manifestations and neurological syndromes. There are several reports of nerve palsies, including optic tract neuropathy, occurring during interferon therapy, and immune-based mechanisms are thought to play a role in the aetiopathogenesis. No reports of Bell's palsy in association with interferon therapy were identified in our literature search, although one possible case has been reported to the Committee of safety in medicine. Although Bell's palsy in our patients may have occurred by chance, a neuropathic effect of interferon-alpha2b on the facial nerve cannot be excluded and we urge physicians using interferons to be aware of this potential side-effect.
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ranking = 0.0076743082823092
keywords = herpes, herpesvirus
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