Cases reported "Chronic Disease"

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1/32. Maxillofacial osteonecrosis in a patient with multiple "idiopathic" facial pains.

    Previous investigations have identified focal areas of alveolar bone tenderness, increased mucosal temperature, abnormal anesthetic response, radiographic abnormality, increased radioisotope uptake on bone scans, and abnormal marrow within the quadrant of pain in patients with chronic, idiopathic facial pain. The present case reports a 53-year-old man with multiple debilitating, "idiopathic" chronic facial pains, including trigeminal neuralgia and atypical facial neuralgia. At necropsy he was found to have numerous separate and distinct areas of ischemic osteonecrosis on the side affected by the pains, one immediately beneath the major trigger point for the lancinating pain of the trigeminal neuralgia. This disease, called NICO (neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis) when the jaws are involved, is a variation of the osteonecrosis that occurs in other bones, especially the femur. The underlying problem is vascular insufficiency, with intramedullary hypertension and multiple intraosseous infarctions occurring over time. The present case report illustrates the extreme difficulties involved in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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keywords = neuralgia
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2/32. Coincidental supraorbital neuralgia and sinusitis.

    headache interpreted as treatment failure may be encountered after FESS or pharmacological treatment for chronic sinusitis. This persistent symptom may lead, even in the presence of minimal sinus disease, to frequent office visits, medical treatment, primary surgery, and revision procedures. A prospective study of patients with a documented history and imaging-verified sinus disease with persistent atypical refractory headache were evaluated. Diagnostic measures included injection of local anesthetic and response to carbamazepine. Severe neuralgia of the supraorbital nerve was identified in 11 patients with chronic sinusitis, treated either medically or surgically before inclusion in the study. Eight of the patients underwent surgery for sinus disease, and five of them had revision surgery because of persisting complaints. All patients responded favorably to the local injection, and eight were treated with carbamazepine. In certain cases, headache in sinusitis patients may be caused or aggravated by supraorbital neuralgia. Sinus disease is possibly a causative factor but conceivably plays the role of a "red herring." This readily diagnosed and treated coexistence may be more prevalent than recognized formerly.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = neuralgia
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3/32. Treatment of chronic pain by spinal cord stimulation.

    chronic pain after injury of the nervous system is difficult to treat. This report describes our experience in the treatment of chronic pain by spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in four patients (three men and one woman, with ages ranging from 61 to 73 yr). One patient had chronic intractable pain due to a spinal cord injury, one had post-herpetic neuralgia, one had failed back surgery syndrome, and one had brachial plexus and spinal cord injuries. A permanent spinal cord stimulator was implanted in the patient with spinal cord injuries. In the other three patients, a permanent spinal cord stimulator was implanted after a successful trial stimulation with temporarily implanted electrodes. After 19 to 25 months (mean, 21 mo) of follow-up, three patients had satisfactory improvement of pain and one patient had temporary pain relief, but pain recurred two months after implantation. One patient had recurrence of pain after migration of an electrode, and the pain-relieving effects of SCS returned after repositioning the electrode. According to this preliminary experience, SCS is effective for pain reduction in selected patients with chronic pain. Long-term follow-up is mandatory to evaluate the benefits and complications of SCS for relief of chronic pain.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neuralgia
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4/32. case reports: chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-tic syndrome.

    The coexistence of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania and trigeminal neuralgia is called chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-tic syndrome. We describe the case of a man who has suffered both types of pain occurring synchronously but with different localization on the ipsilateral side. The pain attacks could be abolished with indomethacin and carbamazepine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case to be reported, the first in the male sex. We review this new disorder and discuss the pathophysiology.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neuralgia
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5/32. Opioids in non-cancer pain: a life-time sentence?

    There is continuing reluctance to prescribe strong opioids for the management of chronic non-cancer pain due to concerns about side-effects, physical tolerance, withdrawal and addiction. Randomized controlled trials have now provided evidence for the efficacy of opioids against both nociceptive and neuropathic pain. However, there is considerable variability in response rates, possibly depending on the type of pain, the type of opioid and its route of administration, the time to follow-up, compliance and the development of tolerance. Five patients were selected with nociceptive or neuropathic pain in whom other pharmacological or physical therapies had failed to provide satisfactory pain relief. They received transdermal fentanyl (starting dose 25 microg/h) for at least 6 weeks. Transdermal fentanyl dosage was titrated upwards as required. Transdermal fentanyl provided adequate pain relief in patients with nociceptive pain (diabetic ulcer, osteoporotic vertebral fracture, ankylosing spondylitis) or neuropathic pain with a nociceptive component (radicular pain due to disc protrusion, herpetic neuralgia). The duration of treatment ranged from 6 weeks to 6 months for four cases. In the case of ankylosing spondylitis, treatment was carried out for 2 years, stopped and then restarted successfully. There were no withdrawal effects or addictive behaviour on treatment cessation, regardless of duration of the treatment. In conclusion, strong opioids may provide prolonged effective pain relief in selected patients with nociceptive and neuropathic non-cancer pain. Transdermal fentanyl treatment can often be temporary and can easily be stopped following adequate pain relief without withdrawal effects or any evidence of addictive behaviour.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neuralgia
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6/32. Chronic varicella-zoster virus ganglionitis--a possible cause of postherpetic neuralgia.

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is dermatomal distribution pain that persists for months to years after the resolution of herpes zoster rash. The cause of PHN is unknown. Herein, we report clinical, molecular virological, and immunological findings over an 11-year period in an immunocompetent elderly woman with PHN. Initially, blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) contained varicella-zoster virus (VZV) dna on two consecutive occasions. Random testing after treatment with famciclovir to relieve pain did not detect VZV dna. However, the patient was reluctant to continue famciclovir indefinitely and voluntarily stopped drug treatment five times. Pain always recurred within 1 week, and blood MNCs contained many, but not all, regions of the VZV genome on all five occasions. Immunological analysis revealed increased cell-mediated immunity to VZV. Chronic VZV ganglionitis-induced PHN best explains the recurrence of VZV dna in MNCs whenever famciclovir was discontinued; the detection of only some regions of the viral genome in MNCs, compared to the detection of all regions of the VZV genome in latently infected ganglia; the increased cell-mediated immunity to VZV; and a gratifying clinical response to famciclovir. The presence of fragments of VZV dna in MNCs likely represents partial degradation of viral dna in MNCs that trafficked through ganglia during productive infection.
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ranking = 5.4496969830995
keywords = postherpetic, neuralgia
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7/32. Oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain.

    PURPOSE: In this investigation, we evaluated a population of patients with chronic orofacial pain who sought treatment at a pain center in an academic institution. These patients were evaluated with respect to 1) the frequency and types of previous oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, 2) the frequency of previous significant misdiagnoses, and 3) the number of patients who subsequently required surgical treatment as recommended by an interdisciplinary orofacial pain team. The major goal of this investigation was to determine the role of oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain. patients and methods: The study population included patients seen at the Center for Oral, Facial and Head Pain at new york Presbyterian Hospital from January 1999 through April 2001. (120 patients; female-to-male ratio, 3:1; mean age, 49 years; average pain duration, 81 months; average number of previous specialists, 6). The patient population was evaluated by an interdisciplinary orofacial pain team and the following characteristics of this population were profiled: 1) the frequency and types of previous surgical procedures, 2) diagnoses, 3) the frequency of previous misdiagnoses, and 4) treatment recommendations made by the center team. RESULTS: There was a history of previous oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures in 38 of 120 patients (32%). Procedures performed before our evaluation included endodontics (30%), extractions (27%), apicoectomies (12%), temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery (6%), neurolysis (5%), orthognathic surgery (3%), and debridement of bone cavities (2%). Surgical intervention clearly exacerbated pain in 21 of 38 patients (55%) who had undergone surgery. Diagnoses included myofascial pain (50%), atypical facial neuralgia (40%), depression (30%), TMJ synovitis (14%), TMJ osteoarthritis (12%), trigeminal neuralgia (10%), and TMJ fibrosis (2%). Treatment recommendations included medications (91%), physical therapy (36%), psychiatric management (30%), trigger injections (15%), oral appliances (13%), biofeedback (13%), acupuncture (8%), surgery (4%), and Botox injections (1%) (Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA). Gross misdiagnosis leading to serious sequelae, with delay of necessary treatment, occurred in 6 of 120 patients (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Misdiagnosis and multiple failed treatments were common in these patients with chronic orofacial pain. These patients often have multiple diagnoses, requiring management by multiple disciplines. Surgery, when indicated, must be based on a specific diagnosis that is amenable to surgical therapy. However, surgical treatment was rarely indicated as a treatment for pain relief in these patients with chronic orofacial pain, and it exacerbated and perpetuated pain symptoms in some of them.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = neuralgia
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8/32. trigeminal neuralgia due to pontine infarction.

    trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is most commonly caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone. Secondary trigeminal neuralgia due to ischemic lesion of the pons is very rare. Here we report a patient with a pontine infarct transecting the central trigeminal pathways resulting with trigeminal neuralgia.
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ranking = 1.75
keywords = neuralgia
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9/32. trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with multiple sclerosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    BACKGROUND: trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by unilateral, severe, brief, stabbing, recurrent pain in the distribution of one or more branches of the fifth cranial nerve. Symptomatic or secondary TN involves TN-like pain that develops owing to a central nervous system lesion (benign or malignant) or to multiple sclerosis (MS). CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors present a report of a unique case of a 43-year-old patient with unilateral TN, MS and concomitant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The facial pain preceded any other manifestations of the systemic disorders, and only after repeated neurological examinations were these diagnoses established. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and repeated neurological evaluations should be implemented in all patients with TN to rule out the presence of underlying disease. The dental practitioner should be familiar with TN to avoid unnecessary dental interventions and ensure prompt initiation of appropriate treatment.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = neuralgia
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10/32. Occipital nerve electrical stimulation via the midline approach and subcutaneous surgical leads for treatment of severe occipital neuralgia: a pilot study.

    Persistent occipital neuralgia can produce severe headaches that may not be controllable by conservative or surgical approaches. We describe a case series of 6 patients who had chronic headaches over an average of 4.9 yr who underwent occipital nerve electrical stimulation lead implantation using a modified midline approach. The patients had received conservative and surgical therapies in the past including oral antidepressants, membrane stabilizers, opioids, occipital nerve blocks, and radiofrequency ablations. Significant decreases in pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores and drastic improvement in functional capacity were observed during the occipital stimulation trial and during the 3-mo follow-up after implantation. The mean VAS score changed from 8.66 /- 1.0 to 2.5 /- 1.3 whereas pain disability index improved from 49.8 /- 15.9 to 14.0 /- 7.4. Our midline approach has several advantages compared with the submastoid approach used elsewhere. There is only one small midline incision over the upper neck and the strain on the lead extension occurs only with flexion and is minimal with lateral flexion and rotation, which contributes to overall stability of this system.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = neuralgia
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